Các bài luận mẫu tiếng Anh
Lời mở đầu
|Trong quá trình học tập, học sinh không chỉ luyện tập các bài tập dạng trắc nghiệm mà cũng thường phải viết các bài luận để đánh giá khả năng sử dụng ngôn ngữ. Đây là một bài tập thường gây khó khăn cho học sinh vì không chỉ đánh giá khả năng thông thạo ngôn ngữ mà còn kiểm tra kiến thức, khả năng suy luận, diễn giải vấn đề một cách logic của học sinh.
"Các bài luận mẫu tiếng Anh" là nguồn tài liệu tham khảo cho học sinh, được trích ra từ First News, bao gồm rất nhiều các chủ đề thực tế khác nhau, giúp học sinh có thể vận dụng, điều chỉnh và viết một cách tự tin hơn.
Chỉ có một số bài luận đầu có bài dịch mẫu để gợi ý học sinh, các bài sau không có để học sinh tự luyện tập và rèn luyện phong cách viết riêng cho mình.
Hi vọng tài liệu này góp phần giúp học sinh học tập ngày càng tốt hơn và tự tin hơn với khả năng tiếng Anh của mình.
Life in the city
| Bài mẫu
Life in the city is full of activity. Early in the morning hundreds of people rush out of their homes in the manner ants do when their nest is broken. Soon the streets are full of traffic. Shops and offices open, students flock to their schools and the day's work begins. The city now throb with activity, and it is full of noise. Hundreds of sight-seers, tourists and others visit many places of interest in the city while businessmen from various parts of the world arrive to transact business.
Then towards evening, the offices and day schools begin to close. Many of the shops too close. There is now a rush for buses and other means of transport. Everyone seems to be in a hurry to reach home. As a result of this rush, many accidents occur. One who has not been to the city before finds it hard to move about at this time. Soon, however, there is almost no activity in several parts of the city. These parts are usually the business centres.
With the coming of night, another kind of actịvity begins. The streets are now full of colorful lights. The air is cooler and life becomes more leisurely. People now seek entertainment. Many visit the cinemas, parks and clubs, while others remain indoors to watch television or listen to the radio. Some visit friends and relatives and some spend their time reading books and magazines. Those who are interested in politics discuss the latest political developments. At the same time, hundreds of crimes are committed. Thieves and robbers who wait for the coming of night become active, and misfortune descends upon many. For the greed of a few, many are killed, and some live in constant fear. To bring criminals to justice, the officers of the law are always on the move.
Workers and others who seek advancement in their careers attend educational institutions which are open till late in the night. Hundreds of them sit for various examinations every year. The facilities and opportunities that the people in the city have to further their studies and increase their knowledge of human affairs are indeed many. As a result, the people of the city are usually better informed than those of the village, where even a newspaper is sometimes difficult to get. The city could, therefore, be described as a place of ceaseless activity. Here, the drama of life is enacted every day.
| Bài dịch
Cuộc sống ở thành thị cuộc sống ở thành thị rất nhộn nhịp. Từ tờ mờ sáng hàng trăm người ùa ra khỏi nhà như đàn kiến vỡ tổ. Chẳng bao lâu sau đường phố đông nghẹt xe cộ. Các cửa hàng và văn phòng mở cửa. Học sinh hối hả cắp sách đến trường và một ngày làm việc bắt đầu. Giờ đây thành phố hoạt đông nhộn nhịp và đầy ắp tiếng huyên náo. Hàng trăm người ngoạn cảnh, du khách và nhiều người khác viếng thăm những thắng cảnh của thành phố trong khi các doanh nhân từ nhiều nơi trên thế giới đến trao đổi công việc làm ăn.
Trời về chiều, những văn phòng và trường học bắt đầu đóng cửa. Nhiều của hàng cũng đông cửa. Lúc này diễn ra một cuộc đổ xô đón xe buýt và các phương tiện vận chuyên khác. Dường như mọi người đều vội vã về nhà. Kết quá của sự.vội vã này là nhiều tai nạn xảy ra. Những ai chưa từng đến thành phố cảm thấy khó mà đi lại vào giờ này. Tuy vậỵ không bao lâu sau một số khu vực của thành phố như ngừng hoạt động. Những nơi này thường là các trung tâm kinh doanh.
Đêm xuống, một hình thức hoạt động khác lại bắt đầu. Đường phố tràn ngập ánh đèn màu. Bầu không khí dịu xuống và cuộc sống trở nên thư thả hơn. Giờ đây người tìm đến những thú vui giải trí. Nhiều người đến rạp chiếu bóng, công viên và câu lạc bộ, trong khi những người khác ở nhà xem ti vi và nghe đài phát thanh. Có người đi thăm bạn bè và bà con. Có người dành thì giờ đọc sách và tạp chí. Những người quan tâm đến chính trị bàn luận về những sự kiện chính trị nóng hổi. Cũng trong thời gian này, hàng trăm vụ trộm cướp diễn ra. Trộm cướp chờ đêm xuống để hoạt động, và vận rủi ập xuống nhiều ngưòi. Chỉ vì lòng tham của một sô ít người mà nhiều người sẽ bị giết, và nhiều người khác phải sống trong cảnh sợ hãi triền miên . Để đưa tội phạm ra trước công lý, các viên chức luật pháp luôn luôn sẵn sàng hành động.
Người lao động và những ngưòi muốn tiến triển trên con đường công
danh sự nghiệp của mình thì tham gia các lóp học ban đêm. Mỗi năm có hàng trăm người trong số họ tham dự vào nhiều kỳ thi khác nhau. Các phương tiện và cơ hội dành cho người dân thành thị để mở rộng học hỏi và gia tăng kiến thức nhân sinh thực sự rất phong phú. Do đó người dân ở thành phố luôn nắm bắt thông tin nhanh hợn người dân vùng nông thôn, nơi mà có khi ngay đến một tờ báo cũng khó kiếm.
Tóm lại thành thị có thể nói là nơi của những hoạt động không ngừng nghỉ. Chính tại đây vở kịch cuộc đời tái diễn mỗi ngày.
1. flock (v): lũ lượt kéo đến, tụ tập, quây quanh
2 . throb (v): rộn ràng, nói rộn lên, rung động
3. sight-seer (n): người đi tham quan
4. transact (v): thực hiện, tiến hành; giải quyết
5. means of transport: phương tiện vận chuyển
6. commit (v): phạm phải
7. misfortune (n): rủi ro, sự bất hạnh, điều không may
8. descend upon (v): ập xuống bất ngờ, đến bất ngờ
9. greed (n): tính tham lam
10. to bring S.O to justice: đem ai ra tòa, truy tố ai trước tòa
11. on the move: di chuyển
12. facility (n): điều kiện thuận lợi, phương tiện dễ dàng
Living in a multiracial community
Living in a community where there are people of various races could be a rewarding and an exciting experience. Such a community is like a small world with many types and races of people in it.
Everyone, young or old, enjoys listening to stories about people in other lands. We read books and newspapers to learn about the habits, customs and beliefs) of people who do not belong to our race, but when we live in a community composed of many races, we have the opportunity to meet and talk with people or various races. We can learn about their customs and beliefs directly from them. In this way, wẹ have a better understanding of their ways of life. For example, in Singapore and Malaysia, which are known as multi-racial countries, Malays, Chinese, Indians and others have lived together for several decades. They have learnt a lot about the cultures of one another, more than what they could have learnt by reading books or newspapers. By living together, they have also absorbed many of the habits of one another to their common benefit.
Further, living in a multi-racial community teaches us how to respect the views and beliefs of people of other races. We learn to be tolerant and to understand and appreciate the peculiarities of those who are not of our race. In this way, we learn to live in peace and harmony with foreigners whose ways of life are different from ours in several respects. We become less suspicious of strangers and foreigners.
The relationship that develops among the people from common understanding in a multi-racial community makes life in such a community very exciting. Any celebration of any race becomes a celebration of all the other races. Thus, there is a lot of fun and excitement during every celebration. In this way, better understanding is promoted among the peoples of the world. Through each of the races of the people in a multi-racial community, we come to know about their respective countries. For example, through the Chinese and the Indians in Malaysia or Singapore we have come to know much about China and India. As a result, we have a better understanding of the peoples of China and India as a whole.
It could therefore be said that life in a multi-racial community teaches us many useful lessons in human relations.
Sống trong một cộng đồng đa chủng tộc Sống trong một cộng đồng mà các cư dân thuộc nhiều chủng tộc khác nhau có.thê là một trải nghiệm thú vị và bổ ích. Một cộng đồng như thế cũng giống như một thế giới thu nhỏ gồm nhiều sắc tộc và kiểu tính cách.
Tất cả mọt người, dù già hay trẻ, đều thích nghe chuyện kể về những người dân xứ khác. Chúng ta đọc sách, báo để biết về những thói quen phong tục và tín ngưỡng của các dân tộc khác, nhưng khi chúng ta sống trong một cộng đồng đa sắc tộc, chúng ta có cơ hội gặp gỡ và trò chuyện với người dân.thuộc nhiều chủng tộc khác nhau. Chúng ta có thể trực tiếp học hói về những phong tục và tín ngưỡng của họ. Băng cách này, chúng ta có thể hiểu nhiều hơn về lối sống của họ. Chẳng hạn như tại Singapore và Malaysia, những nước được xem là đa Sắc tộc, người Mã Lai, Trung Quốc, Ấn Độ và các sắc dân khác đã chung sống với nhau qua vài thập kỷ. Họ đã học hỏi rất nhiều về văn hóa của nhau mà việc đọc sách báo không .thể sánh bằng. Qua việc chung sống với nhau, họ cũng đã tiếp thu nhiều tập quán của nhau đế mang lại lợi ích chung cho cộng đồng.
Thêm vào đó, cuộc sống trong một cộng đồng đa sắc tộc dạy cho ta biết tôn trọng quan điểm và tín ngưỡng của dân tộc khác. Chúng ta biết khoan dung, hiểu biết và đánh giá cao nét đặc thù của những người không thuộc chủng tộc mình. Bằng cách này, chúng ta học chung sống trong hòa bình và hòa thuận với những người ngoại quốc mà lối sống của họ khác chúng ta trên vài phương diện. Chúng ta trở nên ít nghi ngại những người lạ và người nước ngoài.
Mối quan hệ nảy sinh giữa các dân tộc từ sự hiểu biết chung trong một cộng đồng đa sắc tộc làm cho cuộc sống trong cộng đồng như thế trở nên hết sức thú vị. Bất kỳ lễ ký niệm của một dân tộc nào cũng trở thành lễ ký niệm của tất cả các dân tộc khác. Nhờ vậy có rất nhiều niềm vui thích và thú vị trong mỗi một dịp lễ hội. Bằng cách này, sự hiểu biết lẫn nhau giữa các dân tộc trên thế giới được đẩy mạnh. Thông qua mỗi một dân tộc trong cộng đồng đa chủng tộc, chúng ta dần dần hiểu biết về quốc gia mà họ là đại diện. Chẳng hạn, thông qua người Trung Quốc và Ấn Độ ở Malaysia hay Singapo. chúng ta biết nhiều về Trung Hoa và Ấn Độ. Vì vậy chúng ta hiểu nhiều hơn về tổng thể dân tộc và đất nước Trung Hoa và Ấn Độ.
Vì thế có thể nói rằng cuộc sống ở một cộng đồng đa chủng tộc dạy cho ta nhiều bài học hữu ích về mối quan hệ của con người.
1. race (n): chủng tộc, giống người
2. belief (n): tín ngưỡng
3. composed (adj): gồm có, bao gồm
4. multi-racial (adj): đa chủng tộc, nhiều chủng tộc
5. decade (n): thời kỳ mười năm, thập kỷ
6. absorb (v): hấp thu
7. peculiarity (n): tính chất riêng, nét riêng biệt, nét đặc biệt
8. in peace and harmony with: trong hòa bình và hoà thuận
9. promote (v): nâng cao, xúc tiến, đẩy mạnh
10. as a whole: nói chung, toàn bộ
A visit to a famous city
A few months ago my father and I visited Singapore, one of the most famous cities in Asia.
Singapore, a small island, lies at the southern and of West Malaysia. A long and narrow piece of land joins Singapore with Johore Hahru, the southern-most town of West Malaysia. Singapore is now an independent.
The city of Singapore is extremely beautiful. It is well known for its centres of business and other activities. There are many places of interest such as the Tiger Balm Garden, the Botanical Gardens and Raffles Museum. There are also many important centres of learning such as the University of Singapore, Science Centre, the Nanyang University and the Polytechnic. Being a famous city, hundreds of people come every day from various parts of the world to do business or to enjoy the sights of the city. Singapore therefore has large and beautiful airports and its harbours are full of ships.
There are many night schools where people who cannot go to the day schools for some reason or other can continue their studies. And, the government of Singapore is still doing its best to make further improvements in the city for the benefit of the people.
During my stay in Singapore, I went out every day with my father to see the beautiful and interesting places and things in the city. One day we went to the Tiger Balm Garden where I saw several statues of people, animals and other strange creature beautifully made and kept. The sea near this garden makes this a pleasant place to visit. We spent almost half of the day at this place.
Another day we visited the museum where I saw hundreds of curious things preserved for scholars and others. It was indeed an education to see all those things. There is so much to learn here that every visit by any person is sure to add to his knowledge.
I also visited some of the harbours and saw the large ships anchored there. The sight of the ships aroused a desire in me to cross the oceans and go round the world. I was indeed deeply impressed by the activities at the harbour.
Then every night, I went round the town and visited some of the parks and other places of interest. The numerous sights and the constant stream of traffic kept the city alive. I visited a few of the cinemas as well. In short, I enjoyed every moment of my stay in this famous city of Singapore
Cách đây vài tháng, bố tôi và tôi đi tham quan Singapore, một trong những thành phố nổi tiếng nhất châu Á.
Singapore là một hòn đảo nhỏ nằm ở phía nam và thuộc miền trung tây Ma1aysia. Một dải đất nhỏ và hẹp nối liền Singapore với Johore Bahru, thành phố cực nam của vùng Tây Malayxia. Singapore hiện nay là một quốc gia độc lập.
Thành phố Singapore cực kỳ diễm lệ. Nó nổi tiếng bởi những trung tâm buôn bán và các hoạt động khác. Có nhiều thắng cảnh như Vườn Tiger Banh, vườn sinh học và viện Bảo tàng Raffles. Ngoài ra còn có nhiều trung tâm nghiên cứu quan trọng như Đại học tổng hợp Singapore, Trung tâm khoa học, Đại học Nanyang và Đại học Bách khoa. Vì là một thành phố nổi tiếng nên hàng ngày có hàng trăm người từ các nước khác nhau trên thế giới đến để làm việc hay chiêm ngưỡng cảnh quan thành phố. Vì thế Singapore có những sân bay to và đẹp, còn những hải cảng của nó lúc nào cũng tấp nập tàu bè.
Có những lớp học ban đêm cho những người không thể đến trường vào ban ngày vì một lý do nào đó để họ tiếp tục học tập. Và hiện nay chính phủ Singapore đang làm hết sức mình để ngày càng phát triển thành phố vì lợi ích cho người dân Singapore.
Trong khi dừng chân ở Singapore, hàng ngày tôi ra phố dạo chơi với bố và ngắm nhìn cảnh vật thi vị rà đẹp đẽ của thành phố. Một ngày nọ tôi đến vườn Tiger Balm nơi tôi thấy có vài bức tượng người, nhiều loài thú và những tạo vật lạ kỳ được tạo tác và gìn giữ rất công phu. Chúng tôi ở đó gần nửa ngày.
Chúng tôi cũng tham quan viện bảo tàng, ở đó tôi thấy hàng trăm thứ quý giá được giữ gìn cho các học giả và những người khác. Thật là một cơ hội học tập khi được xem tất cả các vật này. Ở đây có rất nhiều điều để học hỏi đến nỗi bất cứ người nào đến thăm viện bảo tàng cũng có thêm kiến thức cho mình.
Tôi cũng đi thăm vài hải cảng và thấy những con tàu lớn thả neo ở Đó. Cảnh tượng tàu bè khuấy động trong tôi ước muốn vượt đại dương đi vòng quanh thế giới. Các hoạt động ở bến cảng thật sự gây cho tôi ấn tượng sâu sắc.
Rồi mỗi đêm tôi đều đi quanh thành phố viếng thăm những công viên và thắng cảnh khác. Vô số ánh đèn và dòng xe cộ bất tận làm thành phố rất sống động. Tôi cũng đến thăm một vài rạp chiếu bóng. Tóm lại tôi yêu thích mỗi khoảnh khắc tôi sống tại thành phố Singopore nổi tiếng này.
1. places of interest: những nơi đáng chú ý, những nơi thú vi
2. strange creatures: những sinh vật lạ
3. curious (adj): ham hiểu biết, tò mò, hiếu kỳ
4. anchor (v): bỏ neo, thả neo
5. arouse a desire: gợi lên sự khao khát
6. impress (v): gây ấn tượng
7. numerous lights: nhiều ánh đèn
8. scholar (n): thành phần trí thức
An unusual opportunity I had
Seldom does one have opportunity of seeing a fight between a tiger and a crocodile. I, however, had this opportunity one day when I went with my father into a forest in search of some wild plants.
I had never been to a forest before. Therefore, whatever I saw in the forest interested me greatly. I looked ạt the rich vegetation all round as well as the variety of colourful flowers and birds, large and small. I saw the activity of some of the wild creatures, such as snakes, squirrels and insects. Occasionally, I heard the cry of some strange animal in pain, perhaps while being eaten by a larger animal. I also heard some rustling noises in the undergrowth; but I was not afraid of all these. Such things, I knew, were natural to the forest.
My father whose only interest was in the type of plants he wanted for my mother's garden, however, paid little attention to the sounds and movements in these green depths. He continued his search for more and more of those plants until we reached one of the banks of a large river in the forest. There we stopped for a while to enjoy the sights around.
The scene was peaceful. Then, to our surprises and honor, we saw a tiger on the other side of the river. It was moving quietly and cautiously towards the water for a drink. A hush fell upon the jungle. My father and I were now too frightened to move from there.
However, as the tiger put its mouth into the river there was a sudden swirl of the waters, and before the tiger could rush out, it was seized by a huge crocodile. The tiger's howl of pain and anger filled me and my father with terrors. Yet we waited there to see the end of the struggle between these two lords of the forest and the river. The crocodile had the advantage from the beginning. It used all its strength to pull the tiger deeper into the water, and the tiger too fought desperately to free itself from the jaws of the merciless reptile; but the tiger soon gave up the struggle and all was quiet again. I now felt pity for the tiger which had died just to slake its thirst.
Then, my father reminded me of the narrow escape that we had ourselves had. If the tiger had been on this side of the river, one of us might have died in the way the tiger did, a victim of animal appetite. And as we were returning home, I began to think of the struggle for life and savagery that lurks beneath peaceful scenes.
Rất hiếm khi người ta có dịp xem một trận đánh nhau giữa một con hổ và một con cá sấu. Tuy nhiên tôi đã từng có cơ hội này vào một ngày nọ, khi cùng với bố tôi vào rừng để tìm cây dại.
Trước đó, tôi chưa bao giờ bước chân vào rừng. Vì thế bất cứ điều gì tôi thấy trong khu rừng đó cũng làm cho tôi thích thú. Tôi nhìn những loại thảo mộc sum xuê ở khắp nơi cũng như những loại hoa cỏ và chim muông lớn nhỏ sặc sỡ đủ màu. Tôi thấy những loài thú hoang như rắn sóc và côn trùng đang hoạt động. Thỉnh thoảng tôi nghe tiếng kêu của một loài thú lạ bị thương, có lẽ là bị một con thú lớn hơn ăn thịt. Tôi còn nghe thấy tiếng xào xạc của những lùm cây thấp; nhưng tôi không sợ. Tôi biết những điều này là phải có trong một khu rừng.
Cha tôi chỉ quan tâm đến nhũng loại cây mà ông muốn trồng trong vườn của mẹ nên ít để ý tới những âm thanh và hoạt động trong khu rừng rậm sâu thẳm này. Ông mải mê tìm thêm nhiều cây dại cho đến khi chúng tôi đến bên bờ một con sông lớn trong rừng. Chúng tôi dừng lại đó một chốc để ngắm cảnh vật xung quanh.
Khung cảnh rất thành bình. Thế rồi hết sức ngạc nhiên và sợ hãi, chúng tôi thấy một con hổ bên kia bờ sông. Nó đang lặng lẽ và thận trọng tiến tới để uống nước. Im lặng bao trùm lên khu rừng rậm. Cả cha tôi và tôi đều kinh sợ đứng chôn chân một chỗ.
Tuy nhiên, khi con hổ cúi sâu xuống mặt sông, bất ngờ một xoáy nước xông lên và, không kịp chạy thoát, con hổ đã bị một con cá sấu khổng lồ tóm chặt. Tiếng rú đau đớn và giận dữ của con hố làm tôi và cha tôi hết sức kinh hoàng. Nhưng chúng tôi vẫn đứng để xem kết cục của trận quyết chiến giữa hai loài chúa tể của rừng xanh và sông nước. Con cá sấu có lợi thế ngay từ lúc đầu. Nó dùng hết sức kéo con hổ xuống nước, và con hổ cũng chiến đấu một cách tuyệt vọng để thoát khỏi hàm con cá sấu tàn bạo. Những chẳng bao lâu sau con hổ thua cuộc và im lặng lại trùm lên khu rừng. Lúc đó tôi cảm thấy đáng thương cho con hổ bị chết chỉ vì khát nước.
Thế rồi cha tôi nhắc tôi nhớ đến sự thoát chết mong manh vừa qua. Nếu con hổ ở bờ sông bên này, hẳn là một trong hai chúng tôi đã chết như con hổ, nạn nhân của loài thú khát máu. Và trên suốt quãng đường về nhà, tôi bắt đầu nghĩ về sự đấu tranh để sinh tồn và sự bạo tàn ẩn sâu dưới cái vẻ thanh bình của cuộc sống.
1. rustling noise (n): tiếng động sột soạt, xào xạc
2. in these green depths: trong sâu thẳm của khu rừng, trong cùng thẳm của khu rừng
3. cautiously (adv): cẩn thận, thận trọng
4. hush (n): sư im lặng
5. swirl (n): chỗ nước xoáy, chỗ nước cuộn
6. howl (n): rú (đau đớn)
7. fill (v): làm tràn ngập, làm đầy
8. terror (n): sự kinh hoàng, nỗi khiếp sợ
9. merciless (adj): nhẫn tâm, tàn nhẫn
10. reptile (n) : loài bò sát
11. slake one's thirst : làm cho đỡ khát, giải khát
12. savagery (n) : sư tàn bạo, sư độc ác, hành vi tàn bạo, hành vi độc ác
13. 1urk (v) : ngấm ngầm, ẩn nấp, núp, trốn
The value of libraries
A good library is an ocean of information, whose boundaries continue to extend with the endless contribution of the numerous streams of knowledge. Thus, it has a peculiar fascination for scholars, and all those whose thirst for knowledge is instable.
The usefulness of libraries in the spread of knowledge has been proved through the years. The field of knowledge is so extensive and life is so brief that even the most avid reader can never expect to absorb it all. Those who have a love for knowledge, therefore, try to master only a small fraction of it. Even this requires reading of hundreds of books, cheap and expensive, new and old. But few people are able to buy all the books on the subject in which they wish to attain proficiency. It is therefore necessary for them to visit a good library, where they can read a great variety of books on the subject they love. Besides, many old and valuable books on certain subjects are found only in a good library. Even the original manuscript of an author, who died several years ago, can be found in it, sometimes.
Today, men everywhere have discovered the benefits of learning. More and more books are being written to extend human knowledge and experience. Governments and individuals throughout the world are, therefore, opening more and more libraries to enable people to read as many books as possible. Libraries have been opened even in the remotest regions of the earth, so that people who are unable to buy books from the towns can still gain access to the various sources of knowledge. Mobile libraries serve the people in various parts of the earth.
The importance of libraries, however, is felt most acutely by students in schools and universities, where most students are engaged in deep studies. The number of books that a student has to study, especially at a university, is so large that unless he comes from a rich family, he can hardly buy them all. Besides, many of the books may not be available in the book-shops within his reach. It is therefore to his advantage to visit a good library.
Some people even have then own private libraries in which they spend their leisure, reading the books that they have collected over the years and drive great intellectual benefit and pleasure.
In short, libraries have contributed so much to the extension of knowledge that they have become almost indispensable to all literate men.
Một thư viện lớn là một đại dương của thông tin mà ranh giới của nó tiếp tục mở rộng với sự đóng góp vô tận những dòng suối tri thức không bao giờ ngừng lại. Vì vậy nó có sức quyến rũ đặc biệt đối với các học giả và những người khát khao chân trời kiến thức.
Sự hữu dụng của thư viện trong việc truyền bá kiến thức đã được Minh chứng hàng bao năm qua. Cánh đồng của tri thức thì quá rộng và cuộc đời thì quá ngắn cho nên ngay cả những độc giả tham lam nhất cũng đừng bao giờ mong rằng sẽ đọc được tất cả. Vì thế, những người yêu mến tri thức chỉ nắm vững một phần nào đó mà thôi. Mà chỉ thế thôi cũng phải đọc hàng trăm quyển sách, rẻ và đắt, mới và cũ. Nhưng ít ai có thể mua tất cả những quyển sách về chuyên môn mà họ muốn thành thạo. Vì thế họ cần phải đến thư viện nơi họ có thể đọc thật nhiều sách về chủ đề yêu thích. Hơn nữa nhiều quyển sách quí giá chỉ có trong thư viện. Đôi khi cả một bản thảo nguyên gốc của một tác giả qua đời cách đây vài năm cũng có thể tìm thấy trong thư viện.
Ngày nay, con người ở khắp nơi đã phát hiện ra lợi ích của việc học tập. Ngày càng có nhiều cuốn sách được viết để mở rộng kiến thức và kinh nghiệm con người. Vì thế các chính phủ và cá nhân trên thế giới không ngừng mở những thư viện giúp người ta đọc càng nhiều sách càng tốt. Thư viện cũng xuất hiện tại ngay cả ở những vùng xa xôi nhất của trái đất để những ai không thể mua sách từ thành phố vẫn có thế tiếp thu những nguồn kiến thức đa dạng. Những thư viện di động phục vụ người đọc sách ở mọi nơi trên thế giới.
Tuy nhiên tầm quan trọng của thư viện là dễ thấy nhất ở sinh viên, học sinh các trường phổ thông và đại học, nơi mà phần lớn học sinh luôn bận rộn nghiên cứu. Con số những quyển sách mà một sinh viên phải nghiên cứu đặc biệt ở trường đại học là khá lớn đến nỗi gần như không thể mua hết được, trừ khi gia cảnh của anh ta hết sức giàu có. Hơn nữa, nhiều quyển sách có thể không có sẵn trong hiệu sách để anh ta mua. Vì vậy đến thư viện rất là tiện lợi.
Một số người có thư viện riêng để khi nhàn rỗi đọc những quyển sách họ đã sưu tập hàng bao năm trời và mang về niềm vui và nguồn tri thức.
Tóm lại, thư viện đã đóng góp rất nhiều trong việc mở mang kiến thức đến nỗi nó trở nên không thể thiếu được đối với tất cả con người.
1. fascination (n): sự thôi miên; sự mê hoặc, sự quyến rũ
2. instable (adj): không ổn định
3. avid (adj): khao khát, thèm khát, thèm thuồng
4. fraction (n): phần nhỏ, miếng nhỏ
5. to attain proficiency (v): trở nên thành thạo, giỏi giang
6. manuscript (n): bản viết tay
7. acutely (adv): sâu sắc
8. intellectual (adj): (thuộc) trí tuệ
9. to drive great intellectual benefit: theo đuổi lợi ích tri thức lớn
10. indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối cần thiết, không thể thiếu được
11. literate men (n): những người có học
A horrible sight
On the main roads of West Malaysia accidents occur almost every day. Most of them are caused by young drivers who are long of speed. The recklessness has caused the death of even careful drivers. What I am about to relate concems the death of some young people, resulting from the reckless driving of a young man.
On the day in question, I was travelling with my brother to Ipoh. As my brother's car was old, he had to drive slowly. We left Singapore, our hometown, very early in the morning, so that we could reach our destination before . The slow journey soon made me so tired that I fell asleep. However, we broke our Journey at Yong Peng, a small town in Johore for some refreshment. When we resumed our journey, we saw a number of badly damaged vehicles in front of the Police Station of that town. My brother then began to talk about the various accidents that he had seen on that road. I began to grow uneasy about the rest of the journey. My brother had told me that most of the accidents occurred within a few miles of that town. I now began to fear for our own safety. Then, suddenly, a car, running at great speed, outtook our car. My brother then predicted that the car would be involved in an accident soon. After that my heart began to beat fast.
The car was soon out of sight. My brother, however, assured me that I would have an opportunity to see a very bad accident, and sure enough, we soon arrived at a distressing scene.
The car that had overtaken our car was in a ditch and four young girls were lying dead on the road-side. Their faces and clothes were covered with blood. Some people were trying to extricate the other occupants, including the young driver, who were still alive in the car. But all of a sudden, the car was on fire, and their efforts failed. Thus, the occupants in the car were burnt alive, and it was indeed heart-rending to hear their last screams. Soon a fire engine and the police arrived with an ambulance, but it was too late.
This was indeed a horrible sight, and even today the mention of accidents reminds me of those piteous screams of the dying ones in that car.
Trên những con đường chính ở Tây Malayxia tai nạn xảy ra hầu như mỗi ngày. Phần lớn các tai nạn là do những tay lái trẻ ưa thích tốc độ. Sự liều lĩnh của họ đã gây nên cái chết của những lái xe thận trọng khác. Những gì tôi sắp kể sau đây liên quan đến cái chết của một số thanh niên gây ra do sự khinh suất của một tài xế trẻ.
Vào một ngày như vậy, tôi đang trên đường đến Ipoh với anh tôi. Vì chiếc xe đã cũ, anh tôi phải lái rất chậm. Chúng tôi từ giã Singapore quê hương chúng tôi vào buổi sáng sớm để có thể đến nơi trước khi trời tối. Chuyến khởi hành chậm chạp chẳng mấy chốc làm tôi buồn chán đến ngủ thiếp đi. Tuy nhiên, chúng tôi dừng lại ở Yong Pens, một thị trấn nhỏ ở Johore để mua thực phẩm tươi. Khi lên đường trở lại, chúng tôi thấy vài chiếc xe hỏng nặng trước sở cảnh sát của thành phố. Anh tôi bắt đầu kể về những tai nạn anh đã chứng kiến trên con đường đó. Còn tôi cảm thấy bồn chồn suốt cả quãng đường còn lại. Anh tôi báo tôi rằng phần lớn các tai nạn xảy ra cách thị trấn đó vài dặm. Lúc đó tôi cảm thấy lo sợ cho sự an toàn của chúng tôi. Thế rồi bỗng nhiên một chiếc xe hơi chạy hết tốc lực vượt qua xe chúng tôi. Anh tôi đoán rằng thế nào chiếc xe kia cũng gây tai nạn. Sau đó tim tôi bắt đầu đập nhanh hơn.
Chẳng bao lâu, chiếc xe chạy khuất dạng. Nhưng anh tôi quả quyết với tôi rằng tôi sẽ được dịp nhìn thấy một tai nạn tồi tệ, và đúng như thế, một lát sau chúng tôi đi đến một quang cảnh thê lương.
Chiếc xe đã vượt xe chúng tôi lúc này đang nằm trong con mương và bốn cô gái trẻ nằm chết trên đường phố. Mặt và quần áo họ bê bết máu. Một số người cố sức giải thoát hành khách còn sống trong xe, và người tài xế trẻ; nhưng thật bất ngờ, chiếc xe bùng cháy và nỗ lực của họ tiêu tan. Thế là những người trong xe bị thiêu sống và tiếng gào hấp hối của họ như xé lòng. Ngay sau đó, xe cứu hỏa và cảnh sát đến với xe cấp cứu nhưng đã quá muộn.
Đây thật là một cảnh tượng kinh hoàng và cho đến tận hôm nay, khi nói đến tai nạn tôi lại nhớ đến những tiếng kêu cứu thảm khốc của những người sắp chết trong chiếc xe kia.
1. recklessness (n): tính thiếu thận trọng, tính khinh suất, tính liều lĩnh
2. to be about to: định làm gì ngay, sắp làm gì
3. in question: được nói đến, được bàn đến
4. resume (v): bắt đầu lại, lại tiếp tục (sau khi nghỉ, dừng)
5. overtake - overtook - overtaken (v): vượt qua
6. ditch (n): rãnh, mương
7. extricate (v): gỡ, gỡ thoát, giải thoát
8. occupant (n): người sở hữu, người sử dụng
9. heart-rending (adj): đau lòng, não lòng
10. piteous (adj): thảm thương, đáng thương hại
Discuss the part that money plays in our lives
Money plays an important part in our lives. In several aspects, it is the most important thing in life. It is therefore much sought after.
Without money we could not buy our food, clothes and all the other things that we need to live comfortably. We require money to travel, to buy medicine when we are ill and also to pay for the services rendered to us by others. In truth, money is almost indispensable to our survival. Most of our activities are therefore directed towards earning as much money as possible.
We use money not only to meet the basic needs of life but also to pay for our own advancement. We use it for education which helps us to live a better life. Thousands of students are unable to attend school or continue their studies for want of money. Lack of money also causes great hardship and sorrow in hundreds of families. Thousands of people are dying everyday throughout the world because they are not able to pay their doctors fee or because they cannot buy nutritious food.
As money is so important, many crimes are committed everyday in all parts or the world to gain possession of it. Some are driven by hunger and desperation to steal, rob, and even kill to get at least what they require to keep body and soul together. Others commit the most serious crimes out of sheer greed for money. Such people cause much trouble and unpleasantness in society, and to bring them to justice, large sums of money are spent by every government.
Today, millions of dollars are being spent by the various governments in the world for the betterment of the people. Numerous schools and hospitals are being built, and hundreds of acres or land are being cultivated to produce more food for the growing population of the world. As a result, the world is gradually becoming a better place to live in.
At the same time, however, much money is being wasted in producing deadly weapons of war. Countries which have more money than the others have become more powerful by strengthening their armed forces. This has led to rivalries among the powerful nations, and several parts of the world are in turmoil. All this shows what an important part money plays in human affairs.
Tiền giữ vai trò quan trọng trong đời sống chúng ta. Trên một vài phương diện nào đó, tiền là quan trọng nhất trong cuộc sống. Vì vậy người ta chạy theo tiền.
Không có tiền chúng ra không thể mua thực phẩm, áo quần và tất cả những vật dụng cần thiết cho một cuộc sống tiện nghi. Chúng ta cần tiền để đi lại mua thuốc khi đau ốm và trả cho những dịch vụ mà người khác làm cho chúng ta. Nói cho đúng, tiền hầu như không thể thiếu với sự tồn tại của chúng ta. Phần lớn các hoạt động của chúng ta vì thế hướng tới việc kiếm ra càng nhiều tiền càng tốt.
Chúng ta dùng tiền bạc không chỉ để thỏa mãn những nhu cầu tối thiểu trong cuộc sống mà còn để nâng cấp cuộc sống của mình. Chúng ta dùng tiền trong giáo dục để có cuộc sống tốt hơn. Hàng ngàn học sinh không thể đến trường hay tiếp tục học tập chỉ vì thiếu tiền. Việc thiếu tiền gây ra khó khăn và những nỗi lo lớn cho hàng trăm gia đình. Trên thế giới hàng ngàn người đang chết dần vì họ không có tiền đế đến bác sĩ hay vì họ không có tiền để mua thực phẩm giàu chất dinh dưỡng.
Vì tiền quan trọng như thế nên hằng ngày trên thế giới diễn ra rất nhiều vụ phạm pháp để giành lấy quyền sở hữu tiền. Có người điên khùng vì đói khát và tuyệt vọng phải đi ăn cắp, ăn trộm và ngay cả giết người để ít nhất giữ cho phần hồn và phần xác của họ không phải lìa nhau. Có người phạm những tội ác nghiệm trọng nhất đơn giản chỉ vì tham tiền. Những người như vậy gây ra rất nhiều phiền toái và khó chịu trong xã hội và để đưa họ ra trước công lý, mỗi một quốc gia phải bỏ ra những món tiền rất lớn.
Ngày nay, nhiều quốc gia đang bỏ ra hàng triệu đô la để cải thiện đời sống nhân dân. Nhiều trường học và bệnh viện đang được xây dựng. Hàng trăm mảnh đất đang được trồng trọt để sản xuất ra nhiều thực phẩm cho dân số đang gia tăng trên thế giới. Vì vậy thế giới dần dần trở thành một nơi cư ngụ tốt hơn.
Tuy nhiên cùng lúc đó, rất nhiều tiền bị hoang phí để sản xuất những vũ khí giết người trong chiến tranh. Những quốc gia nhiều tiền hơn trở nên hùng mạnh hơn bằng cách tăng cường lực lượng vũ trang của họ. Điều này làm các cường quốc đi đến thù địch và nhiều nơi trên thế giới đang trong tình trạng rối loạn. Tất cả những điều đó nói lên rằng tiền quan trọng như thế nào trong cuộc sống con người.
1. play an important part: đóng một vai trò quan trọng
2. in several aspects: xét trên một vài khía cạnh
3. render (v): render a service: giúp đỡ
4. in truth: thật sự, thật ra
5. survival (n): sự sống còn, sự tồn tại
6. not only... but also... không những... mà còn...
7. be unable to: không thể
8. 1ack of : thiếu
9. hardship: sự gian khổ, sự thử thách gay go
10. at least: ít nhất
11. sheer (adj): chỉ là
12. at the same time: cùng lúc đó
13. in turmoil: trong tình trạng rối loạn, hỗn độn
14. affairs (n): công việc, cuộc sống
Science and its effects
One of the most striking features of the present century is the progress of science and its effects on almost every aspect of social life. Building on the foundation laid by the predecessors, the scientists of today are carrying their investigation into ever-widening fields of knowledge.
Modern civilization depends largely on the scientist and inventor. We depend on the doctor who seeks the cause and cure of disease, the chemist who analyses our food and purifies our water, the entomologist who wages war on the insect pests, the engineer who conquers time and space, and a host of other specialists who aid in the development of agriculture and industry.
The advance of science and technology has brought the different parts of the world into closer touch with one another than ever before. We are able to reach distant lands within a very short time. We are also able to communicate with people far away by means of the telephone and the wireless. The invention of the printing machine has made it possible for us to learn from books and newspapers about people in other lands.
Indeed, man's curiosity and resourcefulness have been responsible for the steady stream of inventions that have created our civilization.
At the same time, however, there have been harmful effects. Our machine civilization is responsible for numerous accidents and industrial rivalries among nations. Everyday hundreds of people are dying from serious wounds and injuries. Further, the rapid tempo of modern life results in wide-spread nervous disorder. Moreover, science, which has helped man to secure control over nature, has also made it possible for him to develop more deadly weapons or war. More and more countries are competing with one another in the production of war material. But in these instances the fault lies not with science, but rather with man’s intention to misuse the discoveries of science.
Science is admittedly the dominating intellectual force of the modern age.
Một trong những đặc điểm nổi bật nhất trong thế kỷ hiện nay là sự tiến bộ của khoa học và ảnh hưởng của nó trên hầu như mọi mặt của cuộc sống xã hội. Xây dựng trên nền tảng của những người đi trước, các nhà khoa học ngày nay đang tiến hành nghiên cứu những lĩnh vực kiến thức lớn chưa từng có.
Nền văn minh hiện đại phụ thuộc phần lớn vào các nhà khoa học và nhà phát minh. Cuộc sống chúng ta phụ thuộc vào các bác sĩ trong việc tìm kiếm nguyên nhân và cách chữa bệnh, vào các nhà hoá học phân tích thực phẩm và làm sạch nguồn nước uống, vào các nhà côn trùng học chiến đấu với các loại côn trùng gây hại, vào kỹ sư chinh phục thời gian và không gian và rất nhiều những chuyên gia khác góp phần vào sự phát triển của nông nghiệp và công nghiệp.
Sự tiến bộ của khoa học và kỹ thuật đã làm cho các nước khác nhau trên thế giới xích lại gần nhau hơn bao giờ hết. Chúng ta có thể đến những vùng đất xa xôi trong một thời gian rất ngắn. Chúng ta có thể liên lạc với những người ở xa qua phương tiện điện thoại và máy vô tuyến. Việc phát minh ra máy in giúp chúng ta đọc sách, báo về con người ở những đất nước khác.
Thật vậy tính tò mò và tài tháo vát của con người là nguyên nhân của nguồn phát minh bền vững tạo ra thời đại văn minh của chúng ta ngày
Tuy nhiên, bên cạnh đó khoa học cũng có những ảnh hưởng tai hại. Thời đại văn minh máy móc của chúng ta là nguyên nhân của vô số tai nạn và những sự đối đầu về công nghiệp giữa các quốc gia. Hàng ngày hàng trăm người đang hấp hối vì các thương tích trầm trọng. Hơn nữa nhịp độ tất bật của cuộc sống hiện đại gây nên sự rối loạn thần kinh đang ngày càng lan rộng. Bên cạnh đó, chính khoa học đã giúp con người đạt được quyền kiểm soát thiên nhiên, những cũng chính khoa học đã giúp con người tạo ra càng nhiều vũ khí giết người trong chiến tranh. Ngày càng nhiều quốc gia cạnh tranh với nhau sản xuất ra trang thiết bi chiến tranh. Nhưng trong những trường hợp này lỗi lầm không thuộc về khoa học mà thuộc về con người đã sử dụng sai lầm những phát minh khoa học.
Khoa học được công nhận và lực lượng tri thức then chốt của kỷ nguyên hiện đại ngày nay.
1. striking (adj): nổi bật, thu hút sự chú ý, thu hút sự quan tâm, đáng chú ý, gây ấn tượng
2. foundation (n): nền tảng, nền móng
3. predecessor (n): người đi trước, người tiền nhiệm
4. depend on (v): phụ thuộc vào
5. analyse (v): phân tích
6. purify (v): làm sạch, lọc trong, tinh chế
7. communicate with (v): liên lạc với, giao thiệp với
8. invention (n): sự phát minh, sự sáng chế
9. curiosity (n): sự ham tìm hiểu, trí tò mò, tính hiếu kỳ
10. harmful (adi): gây tai hại, có hại
11. compete (v): đua tranh, ganh đua, cạnh tranh
12. intention (n): ý định, mục đích
The rights and duties of a citizen
Almost every modern state, especially a democracy, allows its citizens several rights; but in return, it expects its citizens to perform certain duties.
Among the rights enjoyed by the citizen in a democracy are the right to pursue his own affairs as he prefers;. the right to express his views, however silly they may appear to others, and the right to move about as he pleases. The citizen is considered so important that his rights are protected by the law of the state, and whenever they are infringed, he can secure redress.
But in a totalitarian state, the rights of the citizen are so restricted that he has practically no freedom. The citizen is supposed to exist for the state. His interests are always subordinated to those of the state. Thus, his duties exceed his rights.
Even in a democracy, however, the citizen is expected to exercise his rights within the limits of the law. He should not do or say anything that may affect the rights of others. In exercising his right to act as he pleases, for example, he should not try to elope with another man's wife or say anything slanderous about her or anyone. In the same way, his actions should not cause injury or damage to any individual or his property. He cannot kill as he pleases. If his conduct infringes the rights of others, then those who have been affected by his misconduct could take legal action against him and he will be punished according to the law of the state. In this way, the state protects its citizens and their rights from the thoughtlessness of any individual in the state. This means, of course, that every citizen in the state is expected to do his duty to his fellow citizens.
The citizen is also expected to give his services for the protection of the state in times of war, and to maintain law and order in his state, at all times.
Thus every citizen who is conscious of his rights should also be conscious of his duties to the state and his fellow citizens.
Hầu như mỗi một quốc gia hiện đại, đặc biệt là một quốc gia dân chủ, đều cho phép công dân có những quyền lợi nhất định; nhưng ngược lại nhà nước cũng yêu cầu công dân thi hành những bổn phận của mình.
Trong số các quyền lợi mà công dân của một quốc gia dân chủ được hưởng thụ, có bao gồm quyền theo đuổi những việc làm ta thích, quyền được bày tỏ các quan điểm của mình dù cho chúng nghe có vẻ ngớ ngẩn, và quyền được đi lại tùy thích. Người công dân rất được tôn trọng đến mức các quyền lợi của công dân được luật pháp nhà nước bảo vệ và bất kỳ lúc nào những quyền này bị vi phạm người công dân có thể yêu cầu bồi thường.
Nhưng trong một quốc gia độc tài, các quyền lợi của công dân bị hạn chế nhiều đến nỗi trên thực tế anh ta chẳng có chút tự do nào. Người công dân được xem là phải tồn tại vì nhà nước. Các lợi ích của anh ta luôn bị xem nhẹ so với lợi ích của nhà nước. Như vậy, nghĩa vụ của công dân vượt quá quyền lợi của họ. Tuy nhiên ngay cả trong chế độ dân chủ người công dân vẫn phải sử dụng quyền lợi của mình trong giới hạn của pháp luật. Anh ta không được làm hay nói điều gì ảnh hưởng đến quyền lợi của người khác. Chẳng hạn trong khi sử dụng quyền được làm những gì mình muốn, anh ta không được cố gắng tán tỉnh vợ người khác hay vu khống cô ta hoặc bất kỳ người nào khác. Tương tự, những hành động của anh ta không được gây thương tích hao tổn hại đến bất kỳ cá nhân nào cũng như tài sản của họ. Nếu anh ta vi phạm quyền lợi của người khác thì những người bị ảnh hưởng bởi hành vi sai trái của anh ta có thể nhờ đến luật pháp xét xử anh ta và anh ta sẽ bị trừng trị theo pháp luật nhà nước. Bằng cách này, nhà nước bảo vệ các công dân và quyền lợi của họ khỏi sự vô ý thức của bất kỳ các cá nhân nào trong đất nước. Đương nhiên điều này có nghĩa là mọi công dân trong nước phải thực hiện nghĩa vụ của mình với những công dân khác.
Người công dân cũng được yêu cầu thực hiện nghĩa vụ bảo vệ tổ quốc trong chiến tranh, duy trì trật tự và luật pháp trong mọi thời điểm.
Vì thế mỗi công dân hiểu biết về quyền lợi cũng nên hiểu biết về nghĩa vụ của mình đối với quốc gia và các công dân khác.
1. democracy (n): nền dân chủ, chế độ dân chủ
2. rights (n): các quyền lợi
3. infringe (v): xâm phạm, vi phạm
4 . redress (n): sự sửa sai, sự uốn nắn, sư đền bù, sự bồi thường
5. totalitarian (adj): chuyên chế
6. subordinated to (v): làm cho phụ thuộc vào
7. slanderous (adj): vu khống, phỉ báng
8. misconduct (n): hành vi sai trái
9. thoughtlessness (n): sự vô ý thức, nông cạn, hời hợt
10. conscious (adj): biết được, nhận ra, có ý thức
The most important day in my life
The most important day in my life was the day when my parents decided to send me to school.
I was then about seven years old. I had been playing with the children living around my house for some years. I had no thought of ever going to school. I enjoyed playing to catch fish from the shallow streams near by. Sometimes we went to the forest to catch birds and squirrels, and I had always thought that life would continue to be the same for me. But, one day, to my great sorrow, my parents suddenly announced that I was no longer to play about and that I was to go to a school.
Words can hardly describe how sad I felt at the thought of having to go to a school. I had often heard that school teachers were very strict and cruel. I had also been told that there were many difficult subjects to learn in school and I could not bear the thought of being compelled to learn them. But everything had been decided for me and I had no choice but to go to school.
Soon after I was admitted to school, however, I discovered to my great joy that learning in school was a pleasure. I began to learn about the people and other wonderful things spread throughout the world. The teachers were very kind and friendly and they often told many interesting stories. The subjects that they taught were also very interesting as a result of all this, I began to take a keen interest in my lessons and I no longer wanted to waste my time playing about.
Today, I am older and I am in a secondary school, learning more and more about the world around us. The knowledge that I have gained has enriched my mind and I have a better understanding of human problems. I am also able to speak the English language with some ease, and I know that my knowledge of English will prove of great value in all my future activities. I also know that if I can pass all my examinations, I will some day occupy an important position in some profession. I might even become a minister in the government of my country or a well-known person in some way.
Therefore, when I now think of the day when my parents arrived at the decision to send me to school, I am filled with love for them. That was indeed the most important day in my life, a day which has changed the whole course of my life.
Ngày quan trọng nhất trong đời tôi là ngày ba mẹ tôi quyết định gởi tôi đến trường.
Lúc đó tôi lên bảy. Tôi đã rong chơi vài năm với các trẻ em quanh nhà. Tôi chưa bao giờ nghĩ đến việc đi học. Tôi thích chơi câu cá trong con suối cạn nước gần đó. Đôi khi chúng tôi vào lùng bắt chim và sóc và tôi luôn nghĩ rằng cuộc đời sẽ mãi như thế. Thế nhưng vào một ngày nọ, thật buồn cho tôi, cha mẹ tôi bất ngờ tuyên bố rằng tôi không được rong chơi nữa mà phải đến trường.
Không có từ nào diễn tả nỗi buồn của tôi khi phải đi học. Tôi thường nghe rằng các thầy giáo ở trường rất nghiêm khắc và dữ tợn. Tôi cũng nghe nói rằng có nhiều môn học rất khó ở trường và tôi không tài nào chịu được ý nghĩ rằng mình bị buộc phải học chúng. Nhưng mọi việc đã định sẵn cho tôi. Tôi không còn sự lựa chọn nào khác ngoài việc đến trường.
Tuy nhiên, chẳng bao lâu sau khi ưng thuận đi học, tôi vui sướng thấy rằng đi học thật là thú vị. Tôi bắt đầu học về con người và những điều kỳ diệu khác đang diễn ra trên khắp thế giới. Các thầy giáo rất tốt bụng và thân thiện, họ thường kể nhiều câu chuyện lý thú. Vì thế tôi bắt đầu yêu thích các bài học và không còn muốn phí thời gian rong chơi nữa.
Giờ đây tôi đã lớn hơn và là một học sinh trung học đang học ngày càng nhiều về thế giới xung quanh chúng ra. Những kiến thức tôi thu lượm được làm phong phú trí óc tôi và tôi đã hiểu biết nhiều hơn về các vấn đề của nhân loại. Tôi cũng có thế nói tiếng Anh lưu loát, và tôi biết rằng kiến thức tiếng Anh của tôi sẽ có ích trong cuộc sống tương lai của mình. Tôi cũng biết rằng nếu tôi đỗ tất cả các kỳ thi, một ngày nào đó tôi sẽ giữ một vị trí quan trọng trong một ngành nghề nào đó. Biết đâu thậm chí tôi sẽ trở một bộ trưởng trong chính quyền nhà nước hay một nhân vật nối tiếng trong một lĩnh vực nào đó.
Vì thế nghĩ về cái ngày ba mẹ quyết định gửi tôi đến học đường, trong tôi tràn ngập yêu thương. Đó thực sự là ngày đáng nhớ nhất trong cuộc đời tôi đó là ngày đã thay đổi toàn bộ cuộc đời tôi.
1. squirrel (n): con sóc
2. as a result: do, vì
3. ease (n): sự dễ dàng, sự thoái mái
4. minister (n): Bộ trưởng
The subject I consider most important
Of all the subjects that I study in school, I think that English is the most important subject. It is mainly through the English language that we gain access to the various sources of knowledge.
English is a language which is spoken and understood by many people in most countries of the world. It is, in fact, the most important means of communication among the vanous countries of the wodd. Knowledge of new discoveries and inventions in one country is transmitted to other countries through English for the benefit of the world. In this way English helps to spread knowledge and progress.
It is true, however, that in the modern age, the study of Science and Mathematics too should be considered very important. Science has conferred many benefits in man. But it requires little thought to realise that scientific principles cannot be understood well without a good knowledge of a language. And, though other languages such as German and Russian are important in the world of Science, it is English that plays the most important role in spreading scientific knowledge. There is in fact no branch of study that has not been communicated in English. The original writings of great scientists, economists, philosophers, psychologists and others who did not speak and write the English language have all been translated into English. Therefore, one who has a good knowledge of English has access to all the sources of information.
Further, as the English language is used by people of different lands and cultures, it has become very rich. It contains so many words, ideas and thoughts that a good knowledge of English enriches the mind and enables one to express oneself well. It also helps one to think better and to understand the people of other lands. It is for all these reasons that I consider English the most important subject in school.
Trong tất cả các môn tôi học ở trường, tôi nghĩ rằng tiếng Anh là quan trọng nhất. Chủ yếu nhờ thông qua tiếng Anh mà chúng ta có thể tiếp cận nhiều nguồn kiến thức đa dạng.
Tiếng Anh là ngôn ngữ được nói và hiểu biết rất nhiều người đang sống tại phần lớn các quốc gia trên thế giới. Trên thực tế tiếng Anh là phương tiện giao tiếp quan trọng nhất giữa nhiều quốc gia khác nhau trên thế giới. Kiến thức về những phát minh và khám phá mới trong một nước được truyền sang các nước khác thông qua tiếng Anh để mang lại lợi ích cho cộng đồng thế giới. Bằng cách này tiếng Anh góp phần truyền bá kiến thức và sự tiến bộ.
Tuy nhiên, hoàn toàn đúng khi cho rằng trong kỷ nguyên hiện đại, việc nghiên cứu Khoa học và Toán cũng nên được xem trọng. Khoa học đã ban cho loài người nhiều ích lợi. Nhưng không cần suy nghĩ cũng nhận thấy rằng người ta không thể hiểu biết các nguyên lý khoa học mà không có kiến thức về ngôn ngữ. Và mặc dù các ngôn ngữ khác như tiếng Đức và tiếng Nga cũng quan trọng trong giới khoa học, nhưng chính tiếng Anh chiếm giữ vai trò quan trọng nhất trong việc truyền bá kiến thức khoa học. Thật vậy không có ngành nghiên cứu nào mà không liên quan đến tiếng Anh. Tất cả những công trình nghiên cứu nguyên bản của các nhà khoa học, kinh tế học, triết học, tâm lý học vĩ đại đều đã được dịch sang tiếng Anh. Vì thế những ai hiểu biết về tiếng Anh có thể tiếp cận được mọi nguồn thông tin.
Hơn nữa vì được sử dụng bởi nhiều người của nhiều đất nước và nền văn hóa khác nhau, tiếng Anh trở nên rất phong phú. Nó bao gồm rất nhiều từ ngữ, ý kiến và tư tưởng, cho nên một sự hiểu biết sâu sắc về tiếng Anh sẽ làm phong phú trí tuệ và giúp ta diễn đạt ý tưởng của mình tốt hơn. Nó cũng giúp ta suy nghĩ tốt hơn và hiếu biết về con người của những đất nước khác. Với tất cả những lý do này tôi cho rằng tiếng Anh là môn học quan trọng nhất ở trường.
1. various (adj): khác nhau, thuộc về nhiều loại, đa dạng
2. transmit (v): truyền đi (qua các phương tiện thông tin đại chúng)
3. progress (n): sự tiến bộ, sự phát triển
4. confer (v): trao tặng, bàn bạc, hội ý, hỏi ý kiến
5. role (n): chức năng, vai trò
6. philosopher (n): nhà triết học, triết gia
7. psychologist (n): nhà tâm lý học
An incident I shall never forget
Certain incidents so impress us that they leave an indelible mark on our memory. I was once involved in an incident of which I shall always have vivid recollections.
The incident occurred when I visited a village in India together with my parents, sometime during my holidays last year.
Early in the morning on the day the incident occurred, I was talking with a few of my new friends in that village. All of a sudden, a boy of my age came rushing towards us to break the news that violence had broken out in the neighbourhood. Alarmed at this news, we began to protect ourselves, and before long the violence spread like wild fire throughout our area. I was a little confused at first for I had no idea about the cause of the outbreak of violence there. One of my friends told me that the area had been notorious for such occurrence owing to rivalry between two parties. Each party tried to destroy the influence of the other in that area, and the bad blood that existed between them had caused several deaths and great misery to innocent people for a long time. Official influence could not be exercised effectively in this area owing to its remoteness from the centres of authority. The members of the rival parties therefore enjoyed almost complete freedom of action. The police arrived only when there was news of violence, and often long after the damage has been done.
While I was listening to this account of facts and events, the situation suddenly took an ugly turn. A man who had been standing a short distance away from us ran into his house most unexpectedly, and within minutes his house was ablaze. My friends and I then ran towards his house to put out the fire; but we were stopped by a few burly men who were holding lethal weapons in their hands. They threatened to kill if we offered any help to anyone. One of them had even struck me on my head with a stick. We realised instantly that we were no match for them and that discretion was the better part valour. We therefore decided to proceed no further.
Soon the fire from that house began to spread and several houses were burning. There were frantic cries for help. Men, women and children were running in all directions in their desparate attempts to save whatever they could from the fire, in spite of the interference of the gangsters. A few of the unfortunate ones were burned to death, including the man who had set fire to his own house. We then concluded that the man must have been so disgusted with what we had seen for so long that he had no more desire to live, and this was his way of putting an end to himself. It was indeed a pathetic sight.
Then, after several hours, the police arrived when more than a quarter of the village had already been burned to ashes. They asked us several questions to find out if we had ourselves participated in the violence. As I was foreigner who would be leaving that village the following day, I had the courage to answer all their questions and to point out the men who had threatened to kill us. Those men were then arrested together with other suspects.
Early next morning, my parents and I left the village with no more desire to re-visit this place; but my memory of this incident will remain fresh forever.
Có những sự việc mà ấn tượng về chúng mạnh mẽ đến mức đế lại dấu ấn không thể xóa nhòa trong ký ức chúng ta. Một lần tôi đã chứng kiến một sự kiện mà ký ức về nó vẫn mãi sống động trong tôi.
Sự việc xảy ra khi tôi viếng thăm một làng quê Ấn Độ cùng với bố mẹ tôi trong kỳ nghỉ năm ngoái.
Vào buổi sáng sớm ngày xảy ra câu chuyện, tôi đang trò chuyện với vài người bạn mới trong làng. Bỗng nhiên, một đứa con trai trạc tuổi tôi chạy về phía chúng tôi báo tin rằng bạo động đã xảy ra ở vùng lân cận. Được báo động, chúng tôi bắt đầu tự vệ và chẳng bao lâu cuộc bạo động đã lan nhanh như lửa cháy qua vùng chúng tôi. Thoạt đầu tôi hơi bối rối vì không biết nguyên nhân nổ ra bạo động ở Đó. Một người bạn cho tôi biết rằng vùng này khét tiếng về những sự vụ như thế do sự thù nghịch giữa hai đảng phái. Đảng này cố gắng triệt hạ ảnh hưởng của đảng kia trong khu vực và sự mâu thuẫn giữa họ đã làm một số người thiệt mạng và gây ra sự bất hạnh cho những người vô tội trong một thời gian dài. Những ảnh hưởng của chính quyền không có hiệu quả ở vùng này bởi nó quá xa các trung tâm quyền lực. Các phần tử của hai đảng phái thù nghịch vì thế hầu như được tự do hoạt động. Cảnh sát chỉ xuất hiện khi có tin tức về vụ bạo động và thường là rất lâu sau khi các thiệt hại đã xảy ra.
Trong khi tôi lắng nghe giải thích về tin tức và sự việc này, tình thế đã bỗng chuyển sang một bước ngoặt nguy hiểm. Một người đàn ông đứng cách chúng tôi không xa bỗng chạy vào nhà, và chỉ trong vài phút ngôi nhà của ông ta bốc lửa. Các bạn tôi và tôi chạy về phía ngôi nhà đế dập tắt lửa, nhưng chúng tôi bị ngăn cán bởi những người đàn ông lực lượng mang vũ khí giết người trong tay. Họ dọa sẽ giết chúng tôi nếu chúng tôi giúp đỡ bất kỳ người nào. Một người trong số họ thậm chí đã dùng gậy đánh vào đầu tôi. Ngay lập tức chúng tôi thấy mình không phải là đối thủ của họ, đồng thời cũng nhận ra rằng liều lĩnh lúc này là không thích hợp. Vì thế chúng tôi quyết định không tiến thêm bước nào nữa.
Trong phút chốc lửa từ ngôi nhà cháy lan ra và vài ngôi nhà khác cũng bị cháy. Đây đó vang lên những tiếng kêu cứu điên cuồng. Đàn ông, đàn bà và trẻ em chạy toán loạn trong sự nỗ lực tuyệt vọng đế cứu lấy bất cứ cái gì có thể từ ngọn lửa bất kể sự can thiệp của những tên côn đồ. Một vài người rủi ro bị thiêu cho đến chết, trong số đó có người đàn ông đã đốt nhà mình. Sau đó chúng tôi kết luận rằng hẳn là người đàn ông đó vì quá ghê tởm với những gì chúng tôi đã chứng kiến trong một thời gian dài đến nỗi ông ta không muốn sống nữa và đây là cách ông kết thúc cuộc đời ông. Thật là một cảnh tượng bi thương.
Rồi sau đó vài giờ cảnh sát xuất hiện khi hơn một phần tư ngôi làng đã cháy ra tro. Họ chất vấn chúng tôi để xem chúng tôi có tham dự vào cuộc bạo động hay không. Vì là một người ngoại quốc sẽ rời làng vào ngày hôm sau, tôi đã can đảm trả lời tất cả câu hỏi và điểm mặt những kẻ đã đe dọa giết chúng tôi. Những người này bị bắt giữ cùng với những người bị tình nghi khác.
Sáng sớm hôm sau bố mẹ tôi và tôi tạm biệt ngôi làng mà không mong trở lại; nhưng kí ức về sự kiện này sẽ mãi mãi không phai mờ trong tôi.
1. incident (n): biến cố
2. indelible (adj): không thể tẩy sạch, không thể gột sạch
3. vivid (adj): sống động, mạnh mẽ
4. all of a sudden: bất thình lình; một cách bất ngờ
5. confused (adj): bối rối, lúng túng
6. notorious (adj): khét tiếng, có tiếng xấu
7. owing to (adj): do, vì, bởi vì
8. rivalry (n): sự kình địch, sự ganh đua
9. remoteness (n): sự xa xôi, hẻo lánh
10. ablaze (adj): rực cháy, bốc cháy
11. lethal weapons (n): vũ khí chết người
12. discretion was the better part of valour: liều lĩnh đúng chỗ thì mới đáng liều lĩnh
13. frantic (adj): điên cuồng, điên rồ
14. desperate (adj): tuyệt vọng, liều mạng, liều lĩnh
15. conclude (v): kết luận
16. disgusted (adj): chán ghét, phẫn nộ
The value of music in the happiness of man
Music has always been a source of happiness to all men on the earth. From their primitive days, men's love of music has led them to make instruments of all descriptions to produce beautiful music for their enjoyment and happiness.
Without music the world would indeed be a very dull place to live in. Even nature is full of music. There is music in the movements of the winds, the sea, as well as the trees; there is music in the calls of the birds, flies and insects and also in the night of the birds and animals. It is from all these things that men have learnt to appreciate the value of music. The same things have also taught men how to produce music from the simplest of things such as sticks, bamboos, and animal horns. Men make many kinds of flutes with bamboos which produce beautiful music.
That music is very important for men's happiness is hard to deny. Music removes men's depression and fills them with gladness. It is for this reason that music is played even in hospitals to cheer up the sick people.
As music has the capacity to make men happy, it contributes greatly to men's success in life. A happy man is a good and hard worker. He works happily among people and ẹarns the good-will or all around. People like to associate with him and to employ him in all kinds of work. Thus, he leads a happy and successful life.
The value of music in the happiness of man is therefore great.
Âm nhạc luôn luôn là nguồn hạnh phúc cho mọi người trên trái đất này. Từ thuở ban sơ, lòng say mê âm nhạc đã khiến con người sáng tạo những nhạc cụ đủ loại để tạo ra âm điệu tuyệt vời mang lại thích thú và hạnh phúc cho mình.
Không có âm nhạc thế giới thực sự trở thành nơi cư ngụ buồn tẻ. Ngay cả thiên nhiên cũng tràn đầy âm nhạc. Có tiếng du dương trong những chuyển động của gió, của biển cả cũng như của cây xanh. Có âm điệu réo rắt trong tiếng hót của chim chóc, tiếng vo ve của ruồi muỗi và côn trùng cũng như âm thanh trong tiếng vỗ cánh bay đi hay chạy nhảy của chim và thú rừng. Từ đó con người đã biết cảm nhận giá trị của âm nhạc. Cũng chính những âm thanh đó đã giúp con người tạo ra âm nhạc từ những dụng cụ thô sơ nhất như gậy, tre và sừng động vật. Con người đã chế tạo ra nhiều loại sáo bằng tre phát ra những âm thanh du dương.
Khó mà phủ nhận rằng nhạc rất quan trọng tới hạnh phúc con người. Âm nhạc xoa dịu nỗi buồn của con người và làm họ tràn đầy niềm vui. Đó là lý do tại sao âm nhạc được sử dụng trong bệnh viện để khích lệ tinh thần bệnh nhân.
Vì âm nhạc có thể làm cho con người hạnh phúc, nó góp phần quan trọng cho sự thành công của cọn người trong cuộc sống. Một người hạnh phúc là một người làm việc tốt và siêng năng. Anh ta làm việc giữa mọi người và luôn được mọi người yêu mến. Người ta thích kết bạn với anh ta, thích thuê anh ta làm mọi công việc. Vì thế cuộc sống của anh ta luôn sung sướng và thành công.
Tóm lại âm nhạc có giá trị to lớn trong hạnh phúc con người.
1. instrument (n): nhạc cụ
2. appreciate (v): đánh giá đúng, đánh giá cao, hiểu rõ giá trị, thưởng thức
3. flute (n): ống sáo
4. capacity (n): có khả năng
5. associate (v): kết giao, giao thiệp
The advantages and disadvantages of the cinema
The influence that the cinema exerts on the minds of those who visit it is at once beneficial and harmful.
Today, there is a cinema in almost every town. The cinema provides so much entertainment that few people fail to visit it. One of the reasons for the popularity of the cinema is that, it entertains all types of people, young and old, literate and illiterate. Because it is so popular, it must exercise some influence on those whom it attracts.
The films shown in the cinema are often very instructive and informative. Almost every film shows something about the activities and customs of the people in other lands. By seeing such films, one learns a lot about human activities. One also gains a better understanding of people of the world.
Further, some films show the battles that were fought in the past. They also sometimes show very vividly how man has struggled through the centuries to remove discomfort from his life. In this way, some films have given many people an insight into the past. Even illiterate people have benefited from such films. What they cannot acquire from books owing to their inability to read, they can acquire from films. School students, too, often benefit from a visit to the cinema. What they see and hear in the cinema makes a better impression on their minds than only the spoken words or their teachers. For example, a teacher of history can hardly describe a battle scene to his students as vividly as a film does. For all these reasons, the cinema is often regarded as an important means of spreading knowledge.
It must be admitted, however, that some films have exerted an evil influence on many people. Films which show the activities of criminals have encouraged many youths to commit acts or crime. Other films, too, such as those dealing with sex and other natural weaknesses of man, have corrupted the morals of many people. As a result, the governments of many countries have been compelled to interfere in the display and production of certain films. Yet, the cinema continues to retain its popularity.
Những ảnh hưởng mà rạp chiếu phim tác động đến tư tưởng của các khán giả đến xem vừa có lợi cũng vừa có hại.
Ngày nay hầu như thành phố, thị trấn nào cũng có rạp chiếu bóng. Rạp chiếu bóng mang lại sự giải trí to lớn đến nỗi không mấy ai chưa từng đến rạp để xem phim. Một trong những lý do làm cho rạp chiếu bóng được ưa thích là vì đây là phương tiện giải trí của mọi người dân, dù già hay trẻ, trí thức hay thất học. Vì phim ảnh khá phổ biến, nó có tác động đến những người thích xem phim.
Những bộ phim được chiếu ở rạp thường có tính chất truyền bá kiến thức và thông tin. Hầu như mỗi bộ phim đều kể chuyện về những sinh hoạt, phong tục của con người ở những xứ sở khác. Bằng cách xem phim, người ta học được rất nhiều về sinh hoạt con người. Người ta cũng có thể hiểu nhiều hơn về các dân tộc trên thế giới.
Hơn nữa, có những phim kể về các cuộc chiến tranh trong quá khứ. Nhiều bộ phim kể lại một cách rất sinh động cuộc đấu tranh của con người qua hàng thế kỷ để cải thiện đời sống của mình. Bằng cách này phim ảnh đã cho con người cái nhìn sâu sắc về quá khứ. Ngay cả người học cũng thu được nhiều lợi ích khi xem các phim này. Họ có thể xem phim để nắm bắt được những điều mà họ không đọc được trong sách vì mù chữ. Học sinh, sinh viên cũng học được nhiều điều bổ ích sau khi xem phim. Tất cả những điều họ nghe và thấy trong phim có ấn tượng sâu đậm trong trí tưởng của họ hơn bất kỳ bài giảng nào của giáo viên. Chẳng hạn một giáo viên lịch sử hầu như không thể miêu tả cho học sinh quang cảnh trận đánh sinh động như phim ảnh. Vì thế phim ảnh được xem là một phương tiện quan trọng để truyền bá kiến thức.
Tuy nhiên phải thừa nhận rằng phim ảnh đã gây ra ảnh hưởng tội lỗi cho nhiều người. Những bộ phim về các hoạt động tội phạm đã khuyên khích nhiều thanh niên phạm pháp. Những bộ phim khác về tình dục và bản năng yếu đuối của con người đã làm suy đồi đạo đức của khá nhiều người. Vì vậy chính quyền của nhiều nước đã buộc phải can thiệp vào việc sản xuất và trình chiếu phim ảnh. Dù vậy, rạp chiếu phim vẫn tiếp tục duy trì đươc tính đại chúng của mình.
1. entertainment (n): sự giải trí, sự tiêu khiển
2. entertain (v): phục vụ
3. literate (adj): có học, biết đọc biết viết
illiterate (adj): mù chữ thất học4. struggle (v): đấu tranh
5. acquire (v): được, giành được, thu được
6. regard (v): coi như, xem như
7. commit (v): phạm pháp, can phạm vào
8. weakness (n): điểm yếu, khuyết điểm, lỗi
9. corrupt (v): làm băng hoại, làm cho đồi bại
10. morals (n): đạo đức, đức hạnh, phẩm hạnh
Describe some of the interesting places in your country
Though my country is small, yet there are many places of interest spread throughout the country.
In the southern most part of the country, where the state of Johore lies, there are some very interesting and beautiful places. In Kota Tinggi, for example, there are beautiful waterfalls which are visited by many people everyday. Then, there is Johore Lama, a place of great historical interest. In Johore Bahru, there is a beautiful beach which is visited daily by several people who love the sea. In Batu Pahat, another town in Johore, is Minyak Buku, an interesting place on the coast.
As we go towards the north, we arrive at Malacca, the oldest town that the Europeans occupied in Malaya in the past. The influences of the Portuguese and the Dutch can still be seen in many of the buildings there.
Further north lies Port Dickson which is well known for its beautiful beaches.
In Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, there are many places of interest such as Batu Caves, the zoo and the museum. The city itself is an interesting place to visit.
Another beautiful town is Penang, situated on an island. The sea around it makes it the most beautiful town in the country.
Finally, the paddy ficlds in the northern most parts of the country are also very beautiful and interesting to look at. On the east coast of the country too there are some beautiful towns such as Kuantan and Kuala Trenganu. All these places have indeed made my country an interesting place to live in.
Dù chỉ là một quốc gia nhỏ bé nhưng trên khắp đất nước tôi có rất nhiều thắng cảnh.
Ở vùng cực nam của đất nước, nơi có tiểu bang Johore, có rất nhiều cảnh sắc đẹp đẽ và thú vị. Ở Kota Tinggi chẳng hạn có những thác nước tuyệt vời mà hằng ngày có rất nhiều du khách đến chiêm ngưỡng. Sau đó là Johore Lama, một thắng cánh lịch sử nổi tiếng. Ở Johore Bahru có một bãi biển đẹp mà nhiều người yêu biển thường ghé đến mỗi ngày. Ở Batu Pahat, một thị trấn khác của Johore, có Minyak Buku, một phong cảnh lý thú vùng duyên hải.
Về phía bắc chúng ta đến Malacca, thị trấn cổ xưa nhất mà người châu Âu đã chiếm đóng tại Malaya trước đây. Có thể thấy trên các toà nhà ở đây dấu ấn sâu đậm của người Bồ Đào Nha và Hà Lan.
Xa hơn về phía bắc là cảng Dickson nổi tiếng với những bãi biển đẹp.
Ở Kuala Lumpur thủ đô Malayxia có nhiều thắng cảnh như hang động Batu, vườn thú và viện bảo tàng. Ngay chính thành phố này cũng là một nơi thú vị cho du khách tham quan.
Một thị trấn xinh đẹp khác là Penang, toạ lạc trên một hòn đảo. Vùng biển quanh đảo giúp cho Penang trở thành thành phố đẹp nhất của đất nước.
Cuối cùng là những cánh đồng lúa ở vùng cực bắc của đất nước, tạo nên cảnh quan đẹp mắt và hấp dẫn. Tại vùng biển phía đông của đất nước cũng có một vài thị trấn xinh đẹp như Kuantan và Kuala Trengalu. Tất cả những thắng cánh này thật sự làm cho đất nước chúng tôi trở thành một vùng đất tuyệt vời để sinh sống.
1. waterfall (n): thác nước
2. occupy (v): chiếm, chiếm lĩnh, chiếm cứ
3. situate (v): nằm, xây dựng ở
4. paddy field (n): ruộng lúa, cánh đồng, nương lúa
What career would you like to choose after leaving school
Today, it is not easy to choose a career. Hundreds of students pass various examinations every year and compete with one another for positions in the various professions which are not so many as there are applicants. I would, however, like to choose teaching as my career.
Teaching is an interesting career for several reasons. As a teacher I can learn many things, especially if I teach to an udder-secondary school. If I teach History or English, for example, I have to read many books to make my teaching lessons more interesting to my pupils. Thus, I can acquire more knowledge of the subjects that I teach than what I can learn from the class text books. It is indeed a fact that a teacher learns a lot from the class text books; but that is hardly enough to make the teacher's lessons interesting to pupils. A good teacher must therefore read many other books.
Again, as a teacher, I have to speak well so that my pupils will be able to understand my instructions well. In this way I can improve my powers of expression. Even my pronunciation of words will improve to great extent.
Further, as a teacher, I shall have enough leisure to read and prepare for various examinations. It is possible today to sit for many important examinations by studying entirely at home. Thus, I can acquire important qualifications.
Finally, as a teacher I will be respected as an educated person. People will assume that I have certain qualifications and show their regard for me and the opinions that I express. Thus, I shall be able to live a happy
Ngày nay, chọn nghề là một điều chẳng dễ dàng. Hàng trăm sinh viên trải qua nhiều kỳ thi mỗi năm và tranh đua với nhau để giành chỗ trong nhiều ngành nghề khác nhau mà số lượng ít ỏi hơn nhiều so với số ứng cử viên. Còn tôi, tôi muốn trở thành một thầy giáo.
Có nhiều lý do để cho rằng dạy học là một nghề thú vị. Làm giáo viên tôi có thể học hỏi được nhiều điều, đặc biệt nếu tôi dạy ớ một trường trung học phổ thông. Nếu tôi dạy Lịch sử hay Anh văn chẳng hạn, tôi phải đọc nhiều sách để bài giảng trở nên thú vị hơn đối với học sinh. Như vậy tôi sẽ tiếp thu được nhiều kiến thức về các đề tài mình đang dạy hơn là những gì có thể đọc qua sách giáo khoa ở lớp. Quả thực không thể phủ nhận rằng một giáo viên học được rất nhiều điều từ sách giáo khoa; nhưng như thế vẫn chưa đủ để làm cho bài học hấp dẫn với học sinh. Một giáo viên giỏi phải đọc nhiều quyển sách khác nữa.
Tương tự, để làm một giáo viên giỏi tôi phải có khả năng diễn đạt tốt để học sinh có thể hiểu được những chỉ dẫn của mình. Bằng cách này tôi có thể phát triển khả năng diễn đạt của mình. Ngay cả cách phát âm của tôi cũng sẽ tốt hơn nhiều.
Hơn nữa, nếu là một giáo viên tôi sẽ có đủ thời gian rảnh rỗi để đọc sách và ôn luyện cho nhiều kỳ thi khác nhau. Ngày nay chúng ta có thể hoàn toàn tự học ở nhà để ôn luyện cho nhiều kỳ thi quan trọng. Nhờ vậy tôi có thể có những bằng cấp quan trong.
Cuối cùng, khi làm giáo viên tôi sẽ được kính trọng như một người trí thức. Mọi người sẽ công nhận rằng tôi có năng lực, họ sẽ coi trọng tôi cũng như những ý kiến tôi đưa ra. Như vậy cuộc sống của tôi sẽ rất hạnh phúc.
1. career (n): nghề nghiệp, sự nghiệp
2. applicant (n): người xin việc
3. upper-secondary school: trường trung học, phổ thông, cấp ba
4. pronunciation (n): sự phát âm, cách phát âm
5. leisure (n): thời gian nhàn rỗi
7. entirely (adv): hoàn toàn, toàn vẹn, trọn vẹn
7. qualification (n): khả năng chuyên môn, trình độ chuyên môn, tiêu chuẩn chuyên môn, văn bằng, học vị
8. respect (v): kính trọng, tôn trọng
9. assume (v): cho rằng, thừa nhận
Why is agriculture important in the world of today?
Since the dawn of history, agriculture has been one of the important means of producing food for human consumption. Today more and more lands are being developed for the production of a large variety of crops. In Asia, vast areas of land are being used to produce rice, wheat, rubber and a variety of other crops. More than half of the lands occupied and developed by human beings in the world are devoted to agriculture.
That agriculture is one of the most essential means of producing food is realised easily when we think of the types of things that we eat. The rice or wheat that we eat comes from the land. Even potatoes and other roots or vegetables and even leaves such as tea, as well as the fruits that men eat are the products of the soil that covers the earth. In fact, everything that we eat, except meat, fish and other kinds of flesh come from the land, and what grows on the land is part of agriculture. Even the sugar, oil, coffee and other beverages that we use are products of plants that grow on land. In the same way, many of the medicines that we use are made of plants that grow in various parts of the world. The tobacco that we use for relaxation also comes from a plant.
Thus, it can be easily observed that without agriculture we would be almost without food. It is true, however, that in the remote past men did live mainly on flesh that he obtained by hunting. But such a kind of life was unhappy and inconvenient, for animals were not found everywhere easily. Therefore, men turned to agriculture for his livelihood. Today, agriculture continues to provide almost all the food that men require to survive on the earth.
Từ buổi bình minh của lịch sử, nông nghiệp đã trở thành phương tiện sản xuất thực phẩm quan trọng cho con người tiêu thụ. Hiện nay ngày càng có nhiều đất đai được khai khẩn để sản xuất những vụ mùa lớn. Ớ châu Á những vùng đất mênh mông đang được sử dụng để trồng lúa gạo, lúa mạch, cao su và nhiều hoa màu khác. Hơn một nửa diện tích đất đai mà con người đã chiếm hữu và khai phá trên thế giới được dành để phát triển nông nghiệp.
Tầm quan trọng thiết yếu của nông nghiệp trong vai trò phương tiện sản xuất thực phẩm có thể được dễ dàng nhận ra khi chúng ta nghĩ đến các loại thực phẩm mình thường ăn. Lúa gạo và lúa mạch chúng ta ăn mọc từ đồng ruộng. Ngay cả khoai tây hay những loại rau củ khác, kể cả lá cây như lá trà, cũng như các loại trái cây mà cũng là sản phẩm của lớp đất bao phủ bề mặt trái đất. Trên thực tế, tất cả những gì chúng ta ăn trừ thịt, cá và những thứ thịt sống khác đều sinh ra từ đất đai, và những gì mọc trên đất đều là một phần của nông nghiệp. Ngay cả đường, dầu, cà phê và các thức uống khác cũng đều là sản phẩm của thực vật mọc trên đất. Tương tự, nhiều vị thuốc chúng ta lấy từ các thực vật ở nhiều nơi trên thế giới. Thuốc lá mà chúng ta dùng để thư giãn cũng lấy từ một loại cây.
Như vậy dễ dàng nhận thấy rằng không có nông nghiệp, chúng ta hầu như cũng không có thực phẩm. Tuy nhiên sự thật là vào thời xa xưa con người sống chủ yếu nhờ vào thịt động vật kiếm được khi săn bắn. Nhưng một cuộc sống như thế không sung sướng và thoải mái bởi vì không phải ở đâu cũng dễ dàng tìm thấy thú vật. Vì vậy con người chuyển sang nông nghiệp để nuôi sống bản thân họ. Ngày nay, nông nghiệp tiếp tục cung cấp phần lớn lương thực cần thiết cho sự tồn tại của loài người trên trái đất.
1. dawn (n): bình minh, buổi đầu
2. agriculture (n): nông nghiệp
3. consumption (n): sự tiêu thụ, sự tiêu dùng
4. variety (n): nhiều thứ đủ 1oại, sự đa dạng
5. flesh : thịt
6. remote (adj): xa xôi, xa xăm
7. inconvenient (adj): bất tiện, thiếu tiện nghi
8. livelihood (n): phương kế sinh nhai, sinh kế
A heroic deed The story of man is full of heroic deeds. One of the acts of heroism that I have seen myself was that of my uncle, who was attacked by a huge tiger while we were in our plantation, one day.
My uncle, a young and well-built man, and I had left our home early in the morning to do some work in the plantation. When we reached there, we could hear some dogs barking in the distance. But we did not suspect anything, and began to do our work.
While we were working, however, we noticed some foot-prints of some animal. We then examined them closely and were satisfied that they did not belong to any member of the cat family, the most ferocious of animals. We then resumed our work. My uncle took a long knife and began to cut some sticks and branches of plants scattered throughout the plantation, while I did some other work. Soon, however, I saw a movement in the bush, a short distance away. I was alarmed. I ran up to my uncle to draw his attention, but he was hardly interested in what I had to say. He continued to do his work. But shortly afterwards, my uncle himself observed the movement in the bush. Yet, he showed no signs of fear, and his composure dispelled my anxieties. He warned me, however, to be careful, and picked up an axe that had been lying on the ground. His knife, he gave to me. Then, he moved slowly and cautiously towards the bush, ready for any attack.
To our horror, a huge tiger soon emerged from the bush. But my uncle was prepared to face it, to escape seemed impossible. The tiger too seemed to be fully aware of the strength and courage of its adversary. It paused several times while advancing towards my uncle. Then all of a sudden, it sprang on my uncle, but his agility enabled him to escape the sharp claws of the brute with the slightest injury. Now with the axe still in his firm grip, my uncle struck the tigers face again and again, until it was bleeding profusely. The length of the handle of the axe made it difficult for the tiger to get to close to my uncle. That the tiger was at a disadvantage was clear to me from the beginning.
In the end, however, the tiger collapsed and died. Within hours, after that all the people in our area heard of my uncle's bravery, which saved us both from death. It was indeed a greatest act of heroism that I had witnessed.
1. heroic deed (n): hành động dũng cảm
2. plantation (n): đồn điền, vườn cây, khu đất trồng trọt
3. well-built (adj): lực lưỡng, cường tráng
4. suspect (v): nghi, nghi ngờ, hoài nghi, ngờ vực
5. ferocious (adj): dữ tợn, hung ác
6. composure (n): sự bình tĩnh, sự điềm tĩnh
7. cautiously (adv): cẩn thận, thận trọng
8 . horror (n): nỗi kinh hoàng, sự khiếp sợ, sự ghê rợn
9. spring (sprang-sprung) (v): nhảy, bật mình
10. agility (n): sự nhanh nhẹn, sự lẹ làng, sự lanh lợi
11. profusely (adv): ướt đẫm, nhiều, dồi dào
12. collapse (v): đổ sụp xuống, ngã gục
Crimes in societyThe human society is full of activity. People work in all kinds of business Firms, government offices, factories and other places, to earn their livelihood. Some work from dawn till dark; many work only at night; and others work during the day. At the same time men with criminal tendency are engaged in all kinds of activity, which often cause great hardship and sorrow to a large number of people in society.
Men develop criminal tendencies because of numerous frustrations. Society has always failed to satisfy the social, emotional and other needs of a large number of people, many of whom have therefore turned to crime for either survival or recognition. The activities of such men represent a constant threat to the welfare society, and much being done to reform them.
But criminals cannot be reformed until they are apprehended. By that time, hundreds of people are forced to live in fear at the hands of criminals, who resort to violence at the slightest provocation. Numerous people of various descriptions have been killed by criminals without proper cause. Society is therefore straining all its resources to bring criminals to justice. Large sums of money are being spent to employ men and equipment for the prevention and detection of crime.
Criminals are desperate men, and when they are pursued, they fight tooth and nail to escape capture. Therefore, those who are employed to capture them have to be brave, intelligent and well-trained men. To have such men always on the alert for the protection of society involves much expenditure.
Punishment of criminals today, however, is not the same as what it was in the past. Society has realized its responsibility towards individuals who always find a bone to pick with ít. It is now believed that criminals could be reformed. Therefore, psychologists and others who are responsible for the welfare of criminals are doing their utmost to train criminals to live a good life in the future. Only those who commit the most serious crimes are punished severely to deter others from committing such crimes.
1. tendency (n): xu hướng, khuynh hướng
2. engage (v): tham gia vào
3. hardship (n): sự thử thách gay go; sự gian khổ
4. numerous (adj): nhiều, đông đảo
5. frustration (n): tâm trạng thất vọng, tâm trạng vỡ mộng, sự làm thất bại, sự làm hỏng
6. welfare (n): hạnh phúc, sự thịnh vượng
7. provocation (n): sự khiêu khích
8. well-trained (n): được giáo dục tốt
9. expenditure (n): chi phí, phí tổn
10. utmost (adj): mức sống
A strange happening The mysteries of nature have always fascinated the human mind, and many of them remain unsolved for a long time. The story that I am about to relate concerns a mysterious relationship between a baby boy and a snake somewhere in Malaysia.
I was indeed intrigued when I read a report in a newspaper sometime ago that a snake had suddenly appeared in a room, with the birth of a child and that it had attempted to show some relationship with the child. I could hardly believe it. The report added that the mother or the child was finally convinced that there was indeed some relationship between her child and the snake and she allowed the snake complete freedom to play and live with the child. To make sure that the report was true, I made up my mind to visit the house where this unnatural relationship between a reptile and a human being was established.
Then, one morning, my brothers, sisters and I arrived at the house, not very far from ours. As we enter the house we were greatly surprised to find a baby boy and a large snake playing with each other mirthfully. Soon, the mother of the child appeared and narrated the events that led to the snake and the child to live together. It seems that the snake was found lying near the baby just a few hours after the baby was born. A man was called in to kill the snake; but every time the man struck at it with the stick that he brought, the child cried with pain. The man then tried to take the snake out of the room, but again the child began to cry. The child's mother then realised that there was some mysterious relationship between the snake and her child. She ordered the man to stop molesting the reptile, and to the surprise of all those who had arrived on the scene, the child stopped crying. The snake then returned to the child without attempting to harm anyone. Since then the snake has been fed by the mother of the child, and the snake and the child have been living together as brothers.
To see this strange occurrence, many people from all parts of the country come everyday. It is said that the snake, by its touch, has cured many sick people; but the mystery remains unsolved.
1. fascinate (v): mê hoặc, quyến rũ, làm mê
2. intrigue (v): hấp dẫn, gợi thích thú, kích thích tò mò
3. convince (adj): tin chắc, đoán chắc
4. reptile (n): loài bò sát
5. mirthfully (adv): vui, vui vẻ
6. narrate (v): kể lại, thuật lại
7. bitterly (adv): một cách đau đớn, quyết liệt, cay đắng, chua chát
8. molest (v): quấy rầy, quấy nhiễu, làm phiền
A journey by trainThe house in which I lived before was near the railway station. Trains used to pass by at regular interval and I had become so familiar with their sound and sight that I took little interest in them. It never occurred to me that I might make journey by train some day. However, when my father decided to take up a new appointment in the place where we now live, it was decided that we should travel by train. It was only then that I discovered how pleasant a journey by train might be.
My father, mother and I boarded a train one afternoon. As the train moved out of the station, I began to think of the days I had spent in our old house which I could still see from the train. But soon the house went out of sight, and I began to think of my journey itself.
The train was now moving quite fast. The first thing that impressed me was the beauty of the landscape. There were green valleys, and tropical plants could be seen everywhere. In certain places there was tall grass. All this reminded me of the geography lessons I had in the classroom. Several palm-oil and rubber plantations could be seen now and then. Sometimes I saw a few houses here and there. I also saw many vegetable gardens at several places.
The train stopped at many stations, and soon it became dark. But sometime later the moon appeared and the landscape looked romantic. As I looked outside, I felt a thrill of admiration for the great artistry of nature.
Inside the train, too, everything was interesting. Some restless passengers moved about aimlessly and their restlessness was amusing. Some were sleeping with their mouths wide open, into which some mosquitoes blundered. Others were reading magazines and newspapers. Occasionally, the ticket-checker passed by. At one corner I saw two policemen keeping a close watch on a man who was hand-cuffed.
At every station a few passengers alighted from the train while a few boarded it. Whenever the train stopped at a big station, I saw a large number of people on the platforms, smartly dressed, and often smiling. As the train moved out, many waved their hands and the passengers too waved in response. After we had passed several stations, I felt sleepy and closed my eyes. When I opened them, I saw the dim light of the dawn. I looked outside and saw the mist-covered plants. The air was fresh, and some birds were flying about. The scene looked extremely beautiful and I was lost in admiration of it. But we soon arrived at our destination and my enjoyment came to an end.
1. interval (n): thời gian giữa hai sự kiện; khoảng thời gian
2. appointment (n): công việc được bổ nhiệm, sự hẹn gặp
3. admiration (n): sự say mê, ngưỡng mộ
4. mosquito (n): con muỗi
5. blunder (v): mỏ mẫm vào
6. hand-cuff (v): xích tay, còng tay
7. extremely (adv): vô cùng, cực độ, cực kỳ
Discuss "news travel fast"Until a few decades ago news travelled very slowly. It took several days to know what was happening in places only a few miles away. But today news travels at a speed much greater than ever before.
In the past, men had to travel on root to get information, even about the most unimportant thing. There were no motor vehicles and travel was slow and difficult. As a result, news too travelled very slowly. If one's relative died in some distant place, one received the news of the death several days later. Sometimes there was no news at all. The difficulty in getting news and information about people in other places made life dull and miserable. There was little communication among those whom we would regard as neighbours today. News was therefore difficult to send and in times of need, it was hard to obtain help.
But all this has changed today. The invention of the means of communication such as the telephone, the wireless and several others has made it possible to send and receive news within a matter of hours and minutes. Even the newspaper and the post office help to spread news and information quickly. As a result, we know what is happening today in all parts of the world. If a great man dies or a war breaks out in some corner or the earth. we receive news about it almost immediately. The ease and speed with which news travels today have helped greatly in promoting better understanding and co-operation among the peoples of the world. When the people of one place or country suffer a sudden calamity, news is at once sent to all parts of the world and help comes from many countries within a very short time. This is not possible in the past when news travelled slowly.
That news travels fast can also be known from our own personal affairs. If we are ill or if something unfortunate happens to us, our friends and relatives come to know about it very quickly. It is therefore true to say that today. "news travels fast".
1. decade (n): thờikỳ mười năm, thập kỷ
2. motor vehicle (n): xe máy
3. miserable (adj): nghèo nàn
4. wireless (n): radio, máy thu thanh, vô tuyến
5. promote (v) xúc tiến, đẩy mạnh; thăng chức
6. co-operation (n): sự hợp tác, cộng tác
7. calamity (n): tai họa, tai ương, thiên tai
In the past when men’s needs were few, it was not necessary to get things from distant lands. But today, the people of one country depend on the people of another country for a variety of things. As a result, world trade has developed.
Without world trade, it would be difficult for the people of any country to get many things which are now considered necessaries. Some countries are not rich in mineral resources. They have no iron or coal mines, while others have too many of them. Again, some countries are not suitable for agriculture while others have several fertile plains to grow crops
Further, even if a country is rich in natural resources, it may not have enough skilled men to exploit them. For such geographical and other reasons the peoples of the world have learnt to buy things which they cannot produce profitably and to sell things for which they have a special ability to produce. West Malaysia, for example, specialises in producing rubber for which there is a great demand from several courtiers in the world. But she has no ability to produce machinery and several other things. West Malaysia therefore depends on other courtiers for many of her needs.
In the same way, all the countries of the world co-operate and exchange things with one another. From other countries we get motor- cars, radios, television sets and several other things, which we cannot produce ourselves. At the same time we give to other countries the things that we can produce better than many others. In this way, every country specialises in producing only a few things. As a result, the quality of goods is improved to the common benefit of the people of the world.
World trade has also raised the standard of living of the people in the world. We are able to use things made in countries across miles of ocean. As a result of all this, life has become more comfortable than what it was before; and it is realised that a country could hardly progress without world trade.
1. mineral (adj): khoáng, (thuộc) khoáng sản
2. fertile (adj): phì nhiêu, màu mỡ
3. exploit (v): khai thác, bóc lột, lợi dụng
A narrow escape
Whenever my mind travels over the past events in my lifè, one incident stands out prominently to remind me of the narrow escape I once had from almost certain death.
In the rubber estates of west Malaysia there are hundreds of snakes of which the cobra is the most dangerous and venomous. This snake has a preference for cool places along the numerous streams found in the estates, where it relaxes, especially in the afternoons. Those who catch fish from these streams have, therefore, to be on the look-out for cobras. All this I did not know until I came face to face with a cobra one day, while fishing with my brother.
My brother and I were then spending our holidays in an estate where our father was employed. In the afternoons, my brother, who loves fishing, and I would go out to catch fish from the streams not very far from our father's house.
Wherever the water was shallow, we got down into the streams and searched for holes where fish usually like to shelter. When we found one, we put our hands in and often caught some fish. Fishing in this way had its moments of excitement, for at times we also caught some water- snakes, which we found to be harmless. Then, one day, I came so close to death that I made up my mind never to catch fish again in that way.
A cobra, about six feet long, was lying along the water's edge of one side of the stream in which we were fishing. Its tail was in the water, but it was concealed by the reeds and grasses along that stream. As I put my hand into the water, my searching fingers touched something tender. Thinking that it was a fish, I gripped it at once and tried to bring it out of the water. But it resisted violently, and to my consternation I discovered that it was a cobra. I relaxed my grip at once and rushed for safety. My brother, who was a few yards away, was too surprised to speak. But he soon saw the cobra which was now rushing towards him with its hood fully opened. I picked up stick hurriedly and threw it at the cobra. Surprisingly, the cobra now turned towards me, and I took to my heels. My brother then picked up a stick and ran after the cobra and managed to kill it just at the time when I was almost exhausted. lf he had been a little late, I might have been killed by the cobra. That was indeed a very narrow escape, an escape I shall never forget.
1. prominently (adv): dễ thấy, nổi bật
2. narrow escape (n): suýt chết
3. estate (n): vùng đất (nhất là nông thôn)
4. cobra (n): rắn mang bành
5. shelter (v): ẩn náu, nương tựa
6. conceal (v): giấu giếm, giấu, che đậy
7. resist (v): kháng cự, chống lại
8. consternation (n): sự kinh hoàng
9. exhaust (adj): kiệt sức, mệt lử
Travel as a means of education
In the past travel was considered an essential part of education. Poets and writers realised the value of travel and went out to other countries in search of knowledge. A man's education was not completed until he had visited foreign lands.
That travel broadens the mind cannot be denied. Those who remain within the confines of their homes are cut off from the outside world. As a result, they develop a narrow outlook on life. But those who travel come into contact with various types of people whose ways of life are completely different from theirs. They see things with their own eyes and have a better understanding of the affairs of the world. The impressions that they receive while they travel remain fresh in their minds for many years, and all false impressions and ideas are removed from their minds. Thus, they are able to see things in their proper perspective and make correct judgments and decisions, and to be able to make connect decisions is a valuable part of education.
It is argued, however, that the presence of the great variety of books, newspapers, the radio and television today obviates the need for travel to acquire knowledge. One would study in the comfort and privacy of one's own home and absorb all the knowledge that one desires. But there are many things which books cannot describe effectively. For example, the love and respect people in other lands have for us and the natural beauty of the various parts or the world cannot be described properly in words. They have to be seen and felt. Besides, not all can understand everything that they read about people away from their homes. To such people, especially, travel is an important means of education. Of course, travel involves time and money which most people cannot afford. But the value of travel as a means of education is so great that time and money spent on travel are not a waste of effort.
1. broaden (v): mở rộng
2. confines (n): biên giới, ranh giới
3. outlook (n): quan điểm, cách nhìn
4. perspective (n): phối cảnh, viễn cảnh
5. obviate (v): xoá bỏ, tẩy trừ
6. absorb (v): hấp thụ
The country I would like to visit
I have heard much about the beauty of the East as well as the West, about the wonderful islands in the Pacific and also in the Atlantic. In short, the whole world seems to be full of beautiful places. The country that I would like to visit, however, is the United States of America.
My knowledge of the United States of America is derived from the geography and history books that I have read, the films that I have seen and the stories that I have heard from people who have visited this country.
The United States of America is a vast country with a mixed population. People from many different lands have come and settled here. This mixture of different races of people with different customs, religions, cultures and abilities have created a nation unique in history. Although this country has a very short history compared with that of the other large countries in the world, it is an example to the world of how people of different races could live together in peace and harmony. The exchange of ideas among the people of so many racial origins here has contributed greatly to the progress and prosperity of the nation. There are world famous scientists, doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers and politicians whose original homes were in many different lands. The work of such men has made this country a wonderful land indeed. The roads, buildings and cinemas here may be said to be the best in the world. There are many places and things of interest such as Hollywood, the United Nations building. Niagara Falls and the skyscrapers. Even the natural vegetation and features are rich in variety. If one travels across the land, one will find different kinds of scenery in different places. Further, as the people here still follow their original customs and traditions, one will also have the feeling that one is passing through many different countries.
The people of the United States are proud of their country, for it was their country that gave the modern world ideas of freedom. The name of Abraham Lincoln will always be remembered by those who believe in the freedom of man. It was the United States, again, who saved the world from destruction in two World Wars. Such a country must be a wonderful land, and it is for this reason that I would like to visit this country some day.
1. derive (v): xuất phát từ, bắt nguồn từ
2. racial (adj): thuộc chủng tộc
3. sky-scraper (n): nhà chọc trời
4. destruction (n): sự phá huỷ, sự tiêu diệt
Good mannersGood manners play an important part in maintaining peace and good- will in a community. A man who has good manners does not hurt the feelings of others, and therefore he is on good terms with his friends and neighbors and also with others. In this way he helps to keep peace in society.
But a man whose manners are bad has no respect for others. He uses words carelessly and behaves rudely towards other and causes a lot of ill- will and unpleasantness. In the end, it is he himself who suffers the most. Everyone avoids him and he is forced to live almost in isolation.
To live well in a society, money alone is not enough. We should also have good manners, for it is human nature to seek friendship; and friendship cannot be bought with money. Friendship with others makes life pleasant and it has to be earned through our own attitude towards others. If we are kind to others, they will be kind to us, and kindness is the essence of good manners. Bad manners not only drive away friends but also others, including our own family members.
Even the richest man cannot afford to have had manners. For a man may have enough money to buy all the things than he wants; but if his manners are bad he will have no friends, and no one can live happily without friends. Even the members of his own family may not respect him and finally he will become a lonely man.
On the other hand, a man whose manners are good has many friends. He commands the respect of all those who come into contact with him. He does not talk ill about others. Even when he is provoked, he tries his best to use words in a way which will not offend others. He is also sympathetic towards the weak and ignorant and does not poke fun at the deformities and weaknesses of others.
There are, however, many people who behave so well outside their homes that they are respected and admired by everyone outside. But in their own homes they are worse than the devil. Such people could not be said to have good manners. Their whole behavior is a pretence and it does not take long for others to discover this. If one's manners are good, one behaves well everywhere, even when one is away from the critical eyes of others. Only such a person can live well in society. It is therefore essential for everyone to cultivate good manners.
1. maintain (v): duy trì, giữ vững
2. isolation (n) : sự cô lập hoặc cách ly
3. seek (v): tìm, tìm kiếm
4. attitude (n): thái độ, quan điểm
5. provoke (v): khiêu khích, chọc tức, kích động
6. sympathetic (n): thông cảm, đồng cảm
7. deformity (n): dị dạng, dị hình
Choosing a careerIt is not easy to choose a career today. Hundreds of students are leaving schools and universities every year to seek employment in the various professions, though employment opportunities are not increasing proportionately. As a result, there is a lot of unemployment.
The inability of the various professions to absorb all those seeking employment makes the choice of a career more difficult. Before one leaves school or university, one has many plans, confident that choosing a career will not be difficult. But when the time comes to choose a career, one finds that there are others with better qualifications waiting to enter the same profession. Disillusioned, one then looks for any kind of employment. In this way, many who wanted to become police, inspectors or field assistants in the rubber estates in this country, become teachers instead, and many who wanted to become teachers, have become clerks.
The lack of institutions where people could acquire the skills necessary for a particular career makes the choice of a career even more difficult. For example, if one desires to become a journalist, one has to receive some training and instruction in a school of journalism. But if there is no such school, one is compelled to think of some other career. On the other hand, even if there are institutions where one could acquire the necessary skills, one may still experience difficulty in gaining admission to them because one may not have the financial resources or the academic ability. Thus, many who wanted to become doctors and lawyers have actually become clerks and teachers.
Further, even if one has all the academic and intellectual requirements for the career that one has chosen, one's temperament may not enable one to make a success of that career. Thus, many who passed several professional examinations and began their career as teachers are now working in the banks and other commercial firms.
All this indicates the difficulty in choosing a career. Only a few are able to remain in the professions of their choice.
1. opportunity (n): cơ hội, thời cơ
2. proportionately (adv): cân xứng, tương xứng
3. disillusion (v): làm vỡ mộng, làm tan vỡ ảo tưởng
4. institution (n): cơ quan, tổ chức
5. on the other hand: trái lại
6. academic (adj): thuộc về học thuật, học vấn
7. intellectual (adj): (thuộc) trí óc, (thuộc) trí tuệ
8. commercial (adj): thuộc về hoặc dành cho thương mại
A visit to a zooThe zoo is an artificial forest created by man. Though there are few trees compared with the natural forest, the animals, birds and other creatures found in the zoo must always remind us of the forest. It is indeed an interesting place to visit.
Even in the natural forest such a variety of animals, birds and other creatures cannot be found as are found in a big zoo. Animals which are not found in the forests of one country are caught in other parts of the world and brought to the zoo. The lion, for example, is not found in Malaysia; but one may see an African lion in the zoo at Johore Bahru.
Until I visited the zoo at Johore Bahru, a few months ago, I had no idea how informative a visit to a zoo might be. Though the zoo at Johore Bahru is not big, I found many kinds of interesting animals and other creatures there. Lions, tigers and other animals were moving about lazily in their cages. Some of the animals appeared to be bored, and they took little interest in the visitors. The monkeys, however. showed their natural agility. Whenever they saw a visitor, they ran towards him and begged for something to eat. I was indeed amused at their behavior. Most of them were caught in Malaysia and their variety was amazing.
Some of the birds too were very interesting to see. Their beautiful feathers and looks fascinated me. Birds are indeed one of the loveliest creations of God. A few birds are larger than many animals.
The lions and the tigers in this zoo were so docile that I could not but treat them as domestic animals like the dog and the cat. I went very close to them, but they showed little interest in me. I then began to think of how the animal or even human spirit could be broken by confinement. Confined to their cages, these animals had become spiritless. Even the sight of food did not seem to excite them much.
Then, there was the crocodile with its usual pretence of innocence. It refused to be disturbed. Heaven knows how it might have reacted if a child had fallen into its pit. However, my visit to the zoo had increased my knowledge of animals.
1. informative (adj): cung cấp nhiều thông tin, có tác dụng nâng cao kiến thức
2. agility (n): sự nhanh nhẹn, sự lanh lợi
3. beg (v): xin, cầu xin
4. fascinate (v): mê hoặc, quyến rũ
5. docile (adj): dễ bảo, dễ sai khiến, ngoan ngoãn
6. crocodile (adj): cá sấu châu Phi, cá sấu
The importance of the newspaperThe newspaper, today, plays a vital role in human affairs. Its importance has not been diminished by the appearance of the radio or the television. Men no longer have travel to get information. The newspaper has become the main source of information about local and foreign affairs. Though the radio and television convey important news and messages quicker than the newspaper, they seldom give the details of an incident. The newspaper, on the other hand, gives not only more details about a particular incident but it also contains more new items. This is of great importance today when political changes occur with a rapidity unknown before. Besides, the newspaper is easier to carry and it could be read at any time during the day. Further, the permanence of the printed word helps one to refresh one’s memory of certain facts and incidents reported in the past.
The importance of the newspaper has been increased greatly by the spread of education. Education sharpens one's curiosity about events in distant lands and also makes one conscious of the necessity to maintain one's reading habits. In both respects the newspaper appeals most, especially if one finds little time to read books.
The newspaper should, however, be read with caution, for its capacity to do harm is great. Most people believe every thing that is reported by the newspaper. As a result, the newspaper exerts a profound influence on the minds of its reader. Therefore, when some news is reported wrongly either by mistake or design, it may cause a lot of harm. On the other hand, if the policy of the newspaper is to promote the welfare of the people, it could do a lot of good. For example, it could exercise its influence to persuade the government of a country to do many things for the benefit of the people. In a country like Malaysia, where there are many races of people, the newspaper could also use its influence to promote good-will and harmony among the people. It is therefore important to know the policy of the newspaper that one reads.
In general, however, the newspaper tries to report as accurately as possible, for there are various magazines and periodicals competing with the newspaper to provide accurate information on world developments, and it is the newspaper that links us with the outside world.
1. vital role (n): vai trò thiết yếu
2. diminish (v): giảm bớt, thu nhỏ
3. convey (v): truyền đạt, chuyển tải
4. permanence (n): tính lâu dài, lâu bền, tính vĩnh cữu
5. conscious (adj): có ý thức, biết được, nhận ra
6. policy (n): đường lối hành động, chính sách
7. accurately (adv): một cách đúng đắn, chính xác
8. periodical (n): tạp chí xuất bản định kỳ
The things that I like mostThere are so many things around us that one finds it hard to have a special preference for a few particular things. I, however, take a special interest in motor-car and television.
Motor-cars have always fascinated me. Since my childhood I have been travelling in motor-cars, and I have visited hundreds of places in this country. I have been to remote villages and almost all the towns, large and small. Travel has broadened my outlook on life. I have met various types of people, and my knowledge of the people and places of this country has increased greatly. If I am at home or if I am walking along a road, I feel the urge to travel as soon as I see a car.
It is because of motor-cars that I am able to do various types of work. In the morning I go to my school, a long distance away, in my father's car. After school I go to my father's plantation to help him in his work. Then I visit one of my class-mates and discuss our school work. Sometimes I visit the cinema, miles away. If there were no motor-cars, I would not have seen so much. Even in this small country, I would perhaps not have been able even to attend school.
The next thing that I like is television. Television helps us to see and hear some of the famous leaders of the world. We are also able to see some of the great events of the day. In addition, we can get news from all parts of the world, and listen to songs and music. Sometimes there are special programmes which are very amusing. The television programmes become more interesting on a rainy day. We can then sit in the comfort of our home and watch the television programme. Even if we cannot read the newspaper for some reason, television keeps us well informed about the latest developments in the world. In this respect, television is better than the radio because the pictures and incidents shown on television convey a better impression than only the spoken words of the radio.
I shall therefore always have a special preference for the motor-car and television.
1. childhood (n): tuổi thơ ấu, thời thơ ấu
2. broaden (v): mở rộng
3. urge (adv): sự thôi thúc, sự thúc đẩy mạnh mẽ, sự ham muốn mạnh mẽ
The advantages and disadvantages of the cinema
My hobbyTo have a hobby is to know how to spend one's leisure moments. A hobby, besides providing an avenue of escape from boredom, can also add to one's knowledge of human affairs. My hobby is reading.
When my day's work is over, I sit down in the privacy of my room and read the newspaper. Reading the newspaper is like travelling round the world. As I read about the developments in the various parts of the world, I fell that I am there myself observing the incidents. I also feel that I am having contacts with many leaders and peoples of the world. This feeling is a source of pleasure to me. By reading the newspaper I have acquired a better knowledge of the world. I am aware of what scientists, economists and politicians are doing to make this world a better place to live in. At the same time, I am also aware of the activities of those who are trying to create chaos in the world.
After reading the newspaper, I take a book which requires deep concentration, such as a history book or a book on psychology. Sometimes I read a novel or a popular magazine. Through this hobby I have learned that people everywhere are the same, in all ages, and in all countries. I have also learned that the world was made not for man alone but for every creature that can feel hunger and thirst, warm and cold. It has also helped me to see not only into the most remote regions of the world today but also into the world in which our ancestors lived.
My hobby has deepened and widened my knowledge of man and his place in the universe. Reading, I think, has made men more human, broad-minded and sympathetic. It has brought me into contact with many great minds, and acquainted with the beauty of language and ideas. It has also improved my powers of expression. I have little difficulty in expressing my thoughts and feelings. Therefore, I could say that my hobby has made me a better person.
1. avenue (n): đại lộ
2. privacy (n): sự riêng tư, sự cách biệt
3. chaos (n): sự hỗn độn, sự hỗn loạn, sự lộn xộn
4. concentration (n): sự tập trung
5. ancestor (n): ông bà, tổ tiên
6. universe (n): vũ trụ
7. acquaint (v): làm quen
The advantages and disadvantages of the cinemaCinemas are a common sight nowadays. They are found in every town. The existence of so many cinemas reflects their popularity. They have indeed become the most popular places of entertainment.
The cinema attracts large numbers of people everyday. It is the magnet of the town. It sometimes attracts even those who do not wish to see a film.
As it is so popular, the cinema exerts a profound influence on the minds of many people, young and old. The influence is sometimes good, and sometimes it is bad. Films showing criminal activities and the sensual desires of man have caused much harm to many youths. Some youths have become criminals themselves though almost every film shows how the good always triumphs over the evil. The cinema has also caused many people to waste money. Such people have become so addicted to visiting the cinema that they see almost every film, good or bad. In this way money is wasted not only on purchasing tickets for admittance to the cinema but also on travelling and many other things.
Often, however, the cinema helps to spread knowledge. There are many films which show the activities of the various races of people living in the remote regions of the earth. Some films show how man has struggled through the centuries to make the world a better place to live in. There are also films which show the events that led to some of the important battles in the past. They are shown with so much realism that one remembers them for a long time. Such films are indeed invaluable, especially to those who are illiterate. In this respect the cinema could be regarded as a school. Even the dullest student learns many things if he sees an educational film in the cinema though he may learn nothing from his teacher or his books. Such is the effect of the film, and in many countries, educational authorities are trying to make the best use of the cinema to spread knowledge and information.
It is therefore clear that the cinema has many advantages as well as disadvantages. Often the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Those who visit the cinema with the purpose of learning something good are sure to benefit from almost every visit to the cinema.
1. entertainment (n): tiêu khiển, giải trí
2. magnet (n): nam châm
3. profound (adj): sâu sắc, sâu rộng
4. sensual (adj): (thuộc) xác thịt, nhục dục
5. triumph (v): chiến thắng, thắng lợi
6. addicted (adj): say mê, nghiện
7. purchase (v): mua sắm
8. realism (n): chủ nghĩa hiện thực
9. outweigh (v): nặng hơn, có nhiều giá trị hơn, có nhiều ảnh hưởng hơn
The importance of examinationsLife today has become so complex that examinations have come to play an important part in one's educational career. Examinations are considered so important that most students are afraid of them.
The ability to pass an examination is indeed a valuable quality. It shows that the student is able to express his thought and ideas to a manner others can understand. It also shows that the student has acquired a certain amount of knowledge in some branches of study. Besides, the mind of a student, even if he is dull, receives good exercise when he prepares for an examination. A student's success in an examination, therefore, helps employers and others to assess his mental or general ability.
Some people, however, argue that examinations test only a certain kind of skill. They say that many people have a good memory and a special ability to pass examinations and achieve brilliant results, though they have no capacity for original thought or imagination. But it should be realized that today the syllabuses are so extensive that a student cannot expect to pass an examination by relying entirely on his memory. The student of today must not only have a fair knowledge of the subject manner but also be able to show his intelligence and power of reasoning, especially if he is sitting for a higher examination. Therefore, a student's ability to pass an examination must indicate some of his mental powers as well as his grasp of the subjects that he has studied.
If there were no examinations, most scholars would have been less informed than they are today. Examinations compel students to read as much as they can, and as they do so, they absorb knowledge unconsciously. Further, because of examinations; teachers have to confine themselves to the syllabuses which are aimed at imparting knowledge in a systematic manner, and thus develop mental discipline. Examinations are therefore an important part of academic studies.
1. complex (adj): phức tạp, rắc rối
2. acquire (v): thu được, đạt được
3. assess (v): đánh giá, ước định
4. argue (v): biện luận, tranh 1uận
5. achieve (v): đạt được, giành được
6. syllabus (n): chương trình học, đề cương bài giảng
7. entirely (adv): hoàn toàn
8. grasp (n): sự nắm được, sự hiểu thấu
9. scholar (n): học giả
10. compel (v): buộc phải, bắt buộc, thúc ép
11. unconsciously (adv): không tự giác, không có ý định, không có ý thức
12. impart (v): truyền đạt, kể cho hay, phổ biến
13. systematic (adj): có phương pháp
A week in hospitalI had always dreaded the thought of being admitted to hospital. The peculiar smell of the hospital, the sight of deformed and critically ill persons and dead bodies in the hospital are things that I had always wished to avoid. But a serious illness sometime ago necessitated my admission to the General Hospital in Malacca.
Though I was seriously ill and required special attention, yet the knowledge that I was in the hospital made me feel miserable during the first few days. The clothes that I had to wear in the hospital were uncomfortable and the food was tasteless. At night, when all the patients were asleep, I used to wake up and think of what might happen it the dead bodies in the mortuary nearby came back to life. I also thought of the patients who might die at anytime. Sometimes I thought that I myself might not wake up from my sleep; that I might have to leave my dear parents, brothers and sisters and never return. Tears would then flow from my eyes.
From the fourth day, however, my spirits were high. The doctors and nurses assured me that I would recover completely in a few days and that I could move about in the hospital as I wished.
I now began to think of the good work that was being done in the hospital to reduce pain and suffering. Hundreds of sick people were coming to the hospital, many with serious injuries caused by various kinds of accidents, with the last hope of survival. And while many were dying, many more were returning home with smiles on their faces. Working every minute and sacrificing their own pleasures and pastimes, the doctors, nurses, hospital assistants and all the other staffs were doing their utmost to save another life. Their humanity impressed me deeply.
I now realised what an important role the hospitals were playing in our daily life, and the disgust that I fell on the first few days was gone. After being in the hospital for a week, I returned home with a better knowledge of human misery and sacrifice.
1. dread (v): kinh hãi, kinh sợ
2. peculiar (adj): lạ kì, riêng biệt
3. critically (adv): nguy kịch, trầm trọng
4. necessitate (n): bắt phải, đòi hỏi phải, cần phải có
5. tasteless (adj): vô vị, nhạt nhẽo
6. mortuary (n): nhà xác
7. assure (v): quả quyết, cam đoan
8. sacrifice (v): hy sinh
9. disgust (n): sự ghê tởm, sự kinh tởm
A frightening experience
Discuss "fire is a good servant but a bad master"How man first learnt to use fire is still unknown, but it is known that even the most primitive man, centuries ago, found it to be of great service to him as it is to us today. Man, in his early days, did not cook his food. He ate everything raw, including meat and fish. But the discovery of fire changed his eating habits completely. He now learnt to cook his food; and, when he found that cooked food was more delicious, fire became an important thing in his life.
Fire also gave the early man warmth and light. Even in his scanty clothes he could keep himself warm in his cave on rainy or cold nights. His cave was no longer dark and he could move about freely at night. Further, fire gave him protection from wild beasts, and his life was more secure than it was before. In fact, fire, like water and air, became indispensable to man; and, today, we use fire for a diversity of purposes. We use it even to operate machinery to produce goods.
But fire has to be kept under strict control, for its capacity to destroy his great. Once it is out of control, it will destroy life and property at tremendous speed and the world has lost things worth millions of dollars because of fire. And, people often use fire's enormous capacity to great advantage. They use it to burn thousands of acres of forest and grow crops: As a result, we now find green fields where once there were forests.
On the other hand, fire has been used by men, especially of the modern age, to destroy men. In every human battle in the past fire was used to destroy the enemy. Even today, thousands of people.in many parts of the world are being destroyed by fire; and, when furious men try to make the best use of fire's extreme anger, misery is hard to avoid. lt then reigns supremes. Innocent people, young and old, must die in thousands. It is, therefore, true to say that, "fire is a good servant, but a bad master".
1. scanty (adj): ít ỏi, thiẽu, không đủ
2. indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối cần thiẽt, không thể thiếu được
3. diversity (n): tính đa dạng
4. out of control: vượt ngoài tầm kiểm soát
5. tremendous (adj): ghê gớm, kinh khủng, khủng khiếp, dữ dội
6. acre (n): mẫu Anh (khoảng 0.4 hecta)
7. furious (adj): giận dữ
8. supreme (adj): tột đỉnh, tối cao
An accident I have witnessedOne rainy day last year, while I was returning home from Mersing, a town in the east coast of Malaysia, I witnessed an accident which I shall never forget.
I was returning home in my father's car. It was raining heavily and the road could not be seen clearly. My father, an old man, was driving slowly to avoid an accident. The journey, therefore, seemed unusually long, and I began to feel tired. Then, suddenly, a small car, running at great speed, overtook our car. My father was shocked at the recklessness of the driver of that car. We could not count the number of persons in that car, but were sure that there were at least five, including two children. My father at once predicted that tragedy would befall the occupants of the car. After this prediction I began to grow impatient. I did not wish to see any ugly scene resulting from an accident. Though the car had gone quite far its rear lights would still be seen.
In the distance there was a narrow bridge. Looking at the way the car was being driven, I too was now sure that an accident would occur and sure enough it did occur. This is how it happened.
A lorry was coming from the opposite direction. It was already on the bridge. The driver of the small car, however, could not slow down in good time. He lost control of the car which skidded and plunged into the swollen river. Somehow, the driver managed to slip out of the car, but the others were doomed. When we arrived at the bridge, we were touched deeply by what we saw. Two children were struggling in the river and we could do nothing to save them. Their mother, as we came to know later, was at the bottom of the river, trapped in the car, and they were swept away by the rush of the current and drowned. The driver, and father of the children, began to cry piteously for the wife and children he had lost so suddenly. It was indeed a very touching scene and I shall never forget this day.
1. witness (v): chứng kiến, làm chứng
2. overtake (v): (overtook- overtaken): bắt kịp, vượt
3. recklessness (n): tính thiếu thận trọng, tính hấp tấp, tính khinh suất, tính liều lĩnh
4. tragedy (n): thảm kịch, bi kịch
5. occupant (n): người sở hữu, người sử dụng
6. skid (v): trượt xe
7. swollen (adj): dâng lên cao; phình ra
8. doomed (adj): phải chịu số phận bi đát
9. struggle (v): vùng vẫy, vật lộn
10. piteously (adv): thảm thương, đáng thương hại
The importance of good roads in a countryGood roads are essential for the development of a country. The Romans realised this centuries ago, and wherever they established themselves, , they tried to improve the roads there. Today, the governments of all countries in the world are building more and more roads to gain access to the remotest regions of their countries.
Roads link towns and villages and enable the people of one place to communicate with the people of another place. When food is scarce in one place, it can be brought from another place without much difficulty. Even things which cannot be produced in one region can be brought from another region where they are produced in abundance. The invention of motor-vehicles has made it easy to transport goods from place to place. But these vehicles require good roads to travel quickly, and the better the roads the more goods can be transported from one place to another in a very short time. Thus, trade is improved.
Further, good roads help people to travel easily to places where they can work and develop their lands and industries. In Malaysia, for example, the improvement of roads has made it easy for skilled workers from the towns to work in remote villages. The people of the villages, on the other hand, have been able to learn much from the towns. As a result, there has been a lot of improvement in this country in all spheres of activity.
Finally, in times of war good roads help armies to move about without difficulty. Sometimes, a country is defeated because its army is not able to reach a place in good time owing to bad roads. Even the police may not be able to reach a place where there is some trouble if the roads are bad. For all these reasons: it is always necessary for a country to have good roads.
1. establish (v): thành lập, thiết lập, kiến lập
2. scarce (adj): khan hiếm
3. abundance (n): nhiều, dư dật, giàu có, phong phú
4. sphere (n): lĩnh vực, phạm vi, tầm ảnh hưởng
5. defeat (v): đánh bại, làm thất bại
Life in the villageThe village has always been known to be a place of peace and quiet. The scattered houses among hundreds of plants and trees at once indicate the lack of activity in the village.
The workers in the village leave their homes early in the morning to work in the plantations or towns nearby. Some have their own plantations, and some make certain articles in their homes to sell them in the towns. A few of the villagers, including women, go out to catch fish in the streams and rivers found in the village. Though the people of the village do not usually earn much, yet they seem to be contented.
In the afternoon, most of the villagers are at home. Some of them take a nap after lunch; some work in their small gardens, and some visit the small shops in the village. In various parts of the village children may be seen playing the popular games of the village. Occasionally, a cyclist passes by.
Then, in the evening, the villagers meet one another. Some play cards and other types of games peculiar to the village. Some talk about the day's incidents in the village, and those whose minds go beyond the village discuss world events.
In almost every village there is a headman whose duty is to settle quarrels among the villagers and maintain peace in the village. Whenever there is a dispute, the villagers go to the headman who is held in such esteem that his word has the force or law. In this way the villagers have developed their own simple laws, and the crimes of cities are almost unknown to the people of the village.
During a festival, the whole village is alive with activities. Everyone is in a happy mood and plays his part to make the festival a success. This is the time for the men, women and children of the village to wear their best clothes and the village is full of colour. These simple ways of life in the village, however, must soon change. Progress in science and education has already begun to affect the outlook of the people in the village, and hundreds are leaving the village to seek their fortunes in the towns and cities.
1. scattered (adj): lác đác, lưa thưa, rải rác
2. article (n): hàng, vật phẩm, đồ đạc
3. contented (adj): thoả mãn, mãn nguyện
4. nap (n): giấc ngủ trưa
take a nap after lunch: ngủ một giấc sau bữa ăn trưa
5. cyclist (n): người đi xe đạp
5. headman (n): trưởng làng, già làng, tù trưởng
7. dispute (n): cuộc bàn cãi, cuộc tranh luận
8. esteem (n): sự kính mến, sự quý trọng
9. mood (adj): tâm trạng, tính khí, tâm tính
10. fortune (n): vận may
My favourite authorMy favourite author is William Shakespeare, a man who has written enough for immortality.
Though a few hundred years have elapsed since the death of Shakespeare and volumes have been written on the life and work of this great writer, his early life still remains a subject for speculation and conjecture. It is generally believed that Shakespeare had very little schooling. Yet his keen intellect and mastery of language have earned for him the appreciation and applause of the literary world.
Shakespeare's fame, 'I think, originates from his ability to identify his readers with the characters in his stories. In most of his stories we find reflections of our own experiences. This shows strikingly that Shakespeare had an insight into 'human nature and the problems of life. His tragedies such as "Macbeth' and "Hamlet” clearly show his deep knowledge of the human mind. Man's ambition, desperation, sorrows, frustrations and hopes are dealt with in these tragedies with such skill that the reader himself experiences all the mental conflicts and emotions, and thus gets a better idea about human nature. With equal skill, Shakespeare deals with man's joys and pleasures in all his comedies. His comedies like, "Twelfth Night" and "As You Like It,' are a delight to read. Through the characters in his stories Shakespeare conveys his views on life and the world. Most of his characters, such as Hamlet, are vehicles for moral instruction. Man's nature is the theme of all his writings. By a skillful combination of words and situations, he reveals the worst as well as the best in man. His choice of words is masterly and many of his phrases are literary gems. As man's nature is his theme, what he wrote years ago remains true even today, and it will remain so till the end of time. It is for all these reasons that I enjoy reading Shakespeare.
However, I do enjoy reading the works of other writers too, such as those of Charles Dickens and Jane Austen. But they do not give the satisfaction that Shakespeare gives. I find Shakespeare's stories so interesting that I have read the same stories several times in last few years; and, every time I read the same story, I learn something new about human nature. Shakespeare was indeed a genius.
1 favourite (adj): được mến chuộng nhất được ưa thích nhất
2. immortality (n): bất tử bất diệt, bất hủ, danh tiếng muôn thuở
3. elapse (v): (nói về thời gian) trôi qua
4. speculation (n): sự nghiên cứu, sự suy xét
5. conjecture (n): sự phỏng đoán
6. applause (n): sự hoan nghênh, sự tán thưởng
7. ambition (n): hoài bão, tham vọng
8. frustration (n): sự làm thất bại, tâm trạng vỡ mộng
9. conflict (n): sự xung đột, cuộc xung đột
10. theme (n): đề tài, chủ đề
11. combination (n): sự kết hợp, sự phôí hợp
12. reveal (v): bộc lộ, biểu lộ, khám phá
13. masterly (adj): rất giỏi, bậc thầy, tài tình
14. gem (n): đá quý, viên ngọc
15. genius (n): người thiên tài, người anh tài, bậc kỳ tài
A frightening experienceI am not one who is frightened easily; but I must admit that one night I saw a figure that struck terror into my heart.
It was a moonlit-night. I was returning home on foot from a town a few miles away. That was the first night in my life that I was out alone. The road along which I was walking was not used much at night. Even during the day, it was used only by those who worked in the rubber and banana plantations long that road. As I was walking, I could hear the noises made by squirrels, insects and owls. Creatures that love the night world such as bats were very active, and there were hundreds of shadows. All these did not, however, frighten me. I held a stick in my hand and moved rapidly towards home for my dinner. Then, suddenly, I caught sight of an old lady, a short distance away. Her head was covered with a white cloth, and she was waving to me.
Curious to know why she was there at that time of the night, I stopped for a while. As I stood there, however, vague memories of stories about ghosts began to come back to my mind. I was soon gripped with fear and took to my heels. I ran as fast as I could, and when I reached home I could hardly speak.
On the next day, however, I visited that place again to make sure that the woman was indeed a real person and not a ghost. But I could find no footprints there. Only a banana plant stood there with its leaves moving in the breeze. I realised then that it was the banana plant with its leaves moving in the breeze that looked like a woman waving her hand. I had indeed made a tool of myself; but after the previous night's experience, this discovery was small relief to me.
1. frighten (v): làm hoảng sợ, làm sợ
2. moon-lit night: đêm sáng trăng
3. vague (adj): mơ hồ, lờ mờ, mập mờ
4. breeze (n): gió nhẹ
5. previous (adj): trước
The value of higher educationSince the dawn of civilization, great thinkers like Plato and Aristotle have been doing their utmost to spread education to the remotest corners of the earth. It is realised that education develops the intellect and enables one to discriminate between the good and the bad. More and more universities and other education institutions are therefore being opened in all parts of the world to provide higher education.
In almost every country today, there is a lot of unemployment. Only those who have received a high standard of education are able to secure high positions in society and in the various professions. It has therefore become necessary for many people to attend institutions or higher learning to improve their prospects of employment.
Higher education confers many other benefits. It broadens the mind and increases one's powers of thinking, reasoning and imagination. Further, it makes one more sympathetic towards others. It helps us to understand the problems and weaknesses of man, and we become less suspicious of strangers and others. We also become more thoughtful of the feelings and needs of others. As a result, we are able to mix better with people. Besides, higher education helps us greatly in deciding what is right and what is wrong, what is true and what is false. Therefore, people can hardly deceive or mislead us. Higher education also teaches us how to spend our leisure moments. We learn to make the best use of our spare time. Even during old age we know how to keep ourselves occupied. Again, higher education develops self-confidence. We learn to have faith in our own abilities. As a result, we are able to meet and talk with people anywhere. All these qualities, acquired through higher education, combine to make one a leader among men. One is able to live a better life in society.
The benefits of education are therefore many, and everyone should try his best to acquire the highest of education, either by attendance at an educational institution or by private studies.
1 civilization (n): nền văn minh
2. discriminate (v): phân biệt
3. institution (n): cơ quan, tổ chức
4. suspicious (adj): nghi ngờ, tỏ ra có sự nghi ngờ
5. mislead (v): làm cho mê muội, làm cho lạc đường, lạc lối
6. self-confidence (n): sự tự tin, lòng tự tin
7. combine (v): phối hợp, kết hợp
The rainy seasonWhen the grass dry, the trees have lost their leaves, the rivers have very little water in them and the fields are parched, everyone prays for the coming of rain. But when it continues to rain for several days, there are prayers everywhere for the rain to stop, for heavy and continuous rain often causes great hardship to many people, especially in the equatorial region. The rainy season is therefore welcomed at times, and at other times, it is hated.
In equatorial countries like Malaysia, the rainy season often causes much damage to crops, life and property. People who work in the paddy- fields, rubber and other plantations have to stop their work for sometime. As a result, they lose income and suffer hardship. Farmers too suffer as they have to stop selling vegetables and poultry for a few days. Even school children experience a lot of inconvenience. They find it difficult to go to school in comfort and ease. Some places are completely under water and many children are unable to go to school. Sometimes the schools have to be closed. Even to go to the market becomes a problem, and people cannot go out to enjoy or do any work.
Continuous rain during the rainy season also causes much illness among children and adults. Sometimes many children are drowned in the floods caused by heavy rains. Bridges and houses are swept away by the floods and there is much suffering.
But if the rains are not heavy, the rainy season can bring a lot of joy to farmers and others. Rains bring water for our crops and for use in our homes. Light rains make the day cool and pleasant and people find it easy to work in the fields and other places. The soil remains moist. Plants and flowers grow easily to make our gardens beautiful. Vegetables too grow well and markets are full of green vegetables. Even animals, like cows and goats find enough grass to eat. There is also enough water for them to drink.
Yet, those who live in places where there is a lot of rainfall do not realise how fortunate they are. Only those who live in the hot deserts realise the value of rainfall. They would surely welcome the rainy season.
1. parch (v): khô nẻ, rang, nung
2. equatorial (adj): (thuộc) xích đạo, gần xích đạo
3. poultry (n): gia cầm, gà, vịt, thịt gia cầm
4. inconvenience (adj): sự bất tiện, sự phiền phức
5. moist (adj): ẩm ướt
The importance of waterSince the beginning of time, water has continued to be an important thing to all living things. Without water nothing could live. We may change our food according to the climate of a place but we find no substitute for water. Man has always looked for pure fresh water to slake his thirst.
Water not only quenches our thirst but it is also a source of food to us. From the sea we catch large quantities of fish and other creatures. We use water to irrigate our lands to produce crops. Many parts of the world are dry and barren because there is no water there. People in such places lead a very hard life. Even the plants and animals find it a real struggle to survive. They can obtain water only by some means of ingenuity. Water also helps to increase the fertility of the land in several parts of the world. The alluvium that is brought down by rivers is very fertile and yields large quantities of crops. Even electricity, which has changed our lives completely, is produced by water-power in many countries.
Further, water is an important means of communication. We use waterways to carry our goods or trade. Water transport is cheaper than land transport and in many remote regions, rivers are the only means of communication. In many countries rivers are used to bring down timber from the hilly regions to the lower regions where the timber mills are. In this way much money is saved.
It is true, however, that water has also caused much destruction to life and property throughout human history. Heavy rainfall, swollen rivers and the angry waves of the sea have killed thousands of people and destroyed homes and crops. Yet, water is indispensable to life, and people everywhere are trying their best to bring water to places where it is scarce, to control its flow in times of floods and to make greater use of it.
1. substitute (n): vật thay thế, người thay thế
2. slake (v): làm nhẹ, làm dịu (đau đớn), làm nguôi
3. quench (v): làm hết khát
4. irrigate (v): tưới, làm ướt đất.
5. barren (adj): cằn cỗi
6. ingenuity (n): tài khéo !éo, tính chất khéo léo
7. fertility (n): tình trạng mầu mỡ
8. alluvium (n): đất phù sa, bồi tích, đất bồi
9. yield (v): mang lại, sinh ra, sản xuất
10. timber mill (n): xưởng gỗ
11. indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối cần thiết, không thế thiếu được
How I spend my time after schoolAs I am now preparing for an important examination which will be held at the end of this year, I spend most of my time reading my books. There are, however, a few other things that I sometimes do during my leisure.
As soon as I reach home everyday after school. I have my lunch quickly in order to have as much time as possible to read my books. Eating quickly is not good for health but I have to pass my examination. Therefore, the more I am able to read the more certain I can be of passing my examination. It is for this reason that I read my books for about two hours after lunch everyday.
After reading in the afternoon, I have my bath and then a cup of tea. Having done these, I go out to my friend's house nearby and discuss our lessons for about an hour with my friend. Sometimes we go for a walk and as we do so, we talk mainly about our lessons. My friend is very good at her lessons and she explains many of the things that I do not understand clearly in school.
Sometimes, however, I remain at home to help my mother in the kitchen, especially if we expect some visitors. I must admit that I enjoy doing such work, as it helps me to learn how to prepare a good meal. I have already learned how to make some delicious cakes by helping my mother. There are times when I spend some time working in our vegetable garden. My parents have planted many varieties of vegetables, and I help them to water the plants so that they may grow well. Further, I also spend some time decorating my house, when I feel that things in my house have become too dull to look at. At night, I study my lesson again, and go to bed late after dinner. Thus, my time after school is spent in a variety of way.
1 prepare (v): chuẩn bị
2. leisure (n): thời gian rỗi
3. delicious (adj): ngon
4. decorate (v): trang hoàng, trang trí
The things I dislike the mostThere are many things that most people dislike. The things that I dislike the most are noise, crowds and laziness.
Noise disturbs me greatly. This is why I do not like to live in a city where noise predominates. From dawn till mid-night, vehicles run to and for in the city to make the place extremely noisy. The noise is further increased by the voices of thousands of people engaged in all kinds of activity and the sounds of other things such as busy factories and machines. For this reason, the very thought of going to a city, even for a short visit, is distasteful to me.
In the same way, I also dislike crowds. Crowds make movement difficult. If a place is crowded, it is not easy to move about or do any work. If we are in a hurry to go somewhere, a crowd can delay our progress.
A crowd can also interfere with our enjoyment of sights and visits. For example, if we go with others to places like the museum and the zoo, we may not be able to enjoy looking at the things around because of the constant fear of losing sight of the others with us, especially if they are small.
Finally, I dislike laziness because I feel that a lazy person is always a burden not only to his parents but also to others. By refusing to do any work he compels others to work for his comforts. Sometimes even a weak and poor person has to struggle to provide for a strong and healthy man who will not exert himself only because he is lazy. Such a person is certainly inconsiderate and ill-mannered towards others. As long as he gets what he needs and wants, he does not care what others think of him. I hate to see such a person, even if he is my own brother or father.
These arguments explain why I hate the things that I mentioned above.
1. laziness (n): sự lười biếng, tính lười biếng
2. predominate (v): chiếm ưu thế, vượt trội
3. run to and fro (v): đi đi, lại lại
4. distasteful (adj): khó chịu, không vừa ý
5. interfere (v): gây trở ngại
6. constant (adj): không ngớt, không dứt, liên miên
7. burden (n): gánh nặng
8. compel (v): bắt buộc, ép buộc, thúc ép
9. inconsiderate (adj): thiếu ân cần, thiếu chu đáo, thiếu quan tâm
10. argument (n): lý lẽ, luận cứ
Describe the things you enjoy doing
I do many things everyday: but the things I enjoy doing most are picking flowers and preparing my school lessons.
As a girl of fourteen years of age, I help my mother everyday. My mother is a very religious lady. Every evening, before her prayers, I go out in search of flowers which she needs during her prayers. I must admit that looking for flowers around my house is a very pleasant exercise. I go to all our neighbours' gardens where a great variety of flowers can be found. Our neighbours are very kind and they allow me to pick as many flowers as 1 like.
As I look at the flowers, I fell extremely happy. They are so beautiful and colourful that they make the gardens the best place to visit in our area. Once I am in these gardens I spend a long time to pick flowers because of the sheer pleasure of walking inside the gardens. Then, I return to the house with the best flowers that grow in these gardens, and my mother is always happy to see them. Thus, I must say that I enjoy picking f1owers very much.
Preparing my school lessons also gives me a lot of pleasure. As I prepare them. I learn many things about the world and its affairs, past and present. 1 also learn about the people around us as well as those who are thousands of miles away in different lands across the oceans. Further, I 1earn more and more new words and phrases which help me to express my own thoughts and feelings better. Besides, the knowledge that I acquire while preparing my lessons helps me to meet and talk with people with greater confidence. It is for these reasons that I like to prepare my lessons.
Thus, the things that I like to do most not only amuse my mind but also contribute to the extension of my knowledge.
1. pick (v): hái (hoa)
2. religious (adj): sùng đạo, mộ đạo, ngoan đạo
3. sheer (adj): hoàn toàn, đơn thuần
4. confidence (n): sự tin cậy, sự quả quyết
5. extension (n): sự mở rộng
Express your opinion on the importance of studying geography Geography is a fascinating subject. It reveals all the wonderful changes and activities that have been going on in the world since the beginning of time.
By reading geography we learn not only about our own country but also about countries beyond the seas. We also learn about the mountains, oceans, islands, lakes, volcanoes, the winds and a number of other very interesting things about the world and the ụniverse.
Among the important things that we learn in Geography are the infinite varieties of creatures. plants, birds and land features that exist in the world. We know that there are millions of creatures: small and large, of various kinds in all parts of the earth. We also know that many of the early creatures have now become extinct, while many of them have changed from their original forms. Reading about all these is indeed very interesting.
We also learn about the various types of plants and birds that exist throughout the world. The plants and birds in the cold lands are not the same as those in warmer lands. In the same way, the land forms in the cold regions are different from those in other regions. In the equatorial regions, for example, plant and animal life is luxuriant while in the poles the land is covered with snow, and animal and plant life is less abundant. In equatorial regions abundant rain has produced large rivers and lakes, while in areas where little rain falls there are large deserts without many rivers and lakes.
As the climate and vegetation of one place are not the same as those of another, the habits and activities of the people of different regions are also different. Even their religious convictions and languages are different from those of other parts of the world.
Thus, Geography is a very important subject, and because of its width and variety it is one of the most interesting subjects to read.
1. geography (n): địa lý học
2. volcano (n): núi lửa
3. universe (n): vũ trụ, vạn vật
4. luxuriant (adi): phong phú, phồn thịnh, um tùm
5. abundant (adj): nhiều, phong phú, dồi dào
6. vegetation (n) : thưc vật, cây cối, thảm thực vật .
7. conviction (n): sự nhận thức, thấy tội lỗi
The importance of riversRivers have been very useful to men in all parts of the earth since very early times. They provide water to slake the thirst of men, to fertilize their lands and to provide a means of communication for the goods that they transport from place to place.
Early civilization began on the banks of the great rivers of the world, such as the Nile and the Indus. These rivers provided the water, the people on their banks needed for all their purposes. As people in those early days did not have the transport facilities that we have today . They had to live close to the rivers to transport their goods to places along the rivers and to draw the water that they needed.
Rivers not only provided water for their domestic needs and agricultural purposes but also enabled the people to move from place to place along their banks. Boats or rafts were used to travel from one end of a river to another. In the same way, goods were also transported. With the transport of good and the contacts of people between different parts of the same river there were also many cultural exchanges. Thus, rivers helped to spread civilization.
It is true, however, that rivers have also caused much misery and unhappiness to millions of people throughout history. They have caused floods and destroyed lives and property in all parts of the earth. For example, the Hwang Ho in China has been described as the “sorrow of China" because of the destruction that it had caused in the past.
But it should be realised that floods occur once in several years. Therefore, the damage that rivers cause is not so great as the benefits that they confer on humanity. Today,rivers continue to be used not only as a source of water for drinking and fertilizing the lands or as a means of transport but also as a source of electricity which has revolutionized society. The importance of rivers is therefore not difficult to appreciate.
1. slake the thirst (v): làm giảm cơn khát, đỡ khát
2. civilization (n): nền văn minh
3. bank (n): bờ sông
4. facilities (n): điều kiện dễ dàng, thuận lợi, tiện nghi
5. domestic (adj): trong nhà, trong gia đình
6. raft ( n ): bè, mảng, bè gỗ
7. revolutionize (v): cách mạng hoá
8. appreciate (v): đánh giá đúng, đánh giá cao, thưởng thức
The value of booksDeep in the heart of every good book lies the distilled wisdom of centuries. To read it is to become wiser.
Books are written for the benefit and pleasure of all those who like to read them. But they are of various types. There are books for children, as well as for adults. Some books are written for the specialists, some are written for students in the schools and universities, and many are written just for the pleasures of the mind. Indeed, the variety of books is infinite.
One of the reasons for the existence of such a wide variety of books is that the field of knowledge is very extensive. Even to grasp a small part of it one has to read several books for many years. Another reason is that different people have different likes and dislikes. The book that one likes to read, the other may not like. To meet these broad and varying needs of people for information, knowledge, recreation and aesthetic enjoyment, more and more books are being written every year.
Those who aim to specialize in a certain branch of knowledge concentrate more on the books that provide information on their particular field of study. In the libraries and book shops they look mainly for such books. But those who have no particular interest in any subject read and buy all types of books. Sometimes they buy books intended for the specialist, sometimes they buy those written for children. and sometimes if they are preparing for some examination, they buy books which give some information on their examination subjects.
Almost every book extends the knowledge of the reader and develops his intellect as well. Even if the reader does not learn any new facts from the book, he may at least learn a few new words, expressions or ideas. In fact, certain books are written mainly to acquaint the reader with the beauty of language and ideas. They do not deal with facts or actual human experiences. Books of this type provide great pleasure to the mind, and almost everyone who loves reading buys a few of such books. Books have also helped to promote better understanding among the peoples of the world. By reading books. The people of one country have come to know about the achievements of those in other countries.
Thus, books could be regarded as one of the channels of communication among men. Indeed, without books man would not have made so much progress as he has made today. By applying the knowledge that he has gained from books to practical purposes, he has made the world a pleasant place to live in. Civilization therefore owes a great debt to these inanimate things called books.
1. distil (v): đúc kết, chưng cất
2. specialist (n): chuyên gia, chuyên viên
3. varying (adj): hay thay đổi, hay biến đổi, không ổn định
4. aesthetic (adj): (thuộc) mỹ học, thẩm mỹ
5. field (n): lĩnh vực, phạm vi
6. intellect (n): trí tuệ
7. at least : ít nhất, tối thiểu
8. promote (v): thúc đẩy, khích 1ệ, xúc tiến
9. achievement (n): thành tích, thành tựu
10. channel (n): kênh, nguồn (thông tin, tin tức...)
11. inanimate (adj): vô tri, vô giác
Do you think that physical education is important?The value of physical education has been realized since the earliest times of human existence. The Greeks and the Romans considered it indispensable to the development of a good personality and character.
Today in all the schools and universities in the world, a great deal emphasis is being placed on physical education as a means of producing citizens of good character and personality.
Physical education develops the muscles of the body scientifically and increases muscular activity and physical strength. All this makes the body active and efficient. It is now also realized that there is a close connection between the body and the mind. Therefore, if the body is active, the mind too is active. Proof of this can be easily found among children. Children who are inactive physically are usually also mentally lazy. An active and efficient body is a healthy body. When the body is healthy, the mind too is and therefore happy. Thus, physical education contributes greatly to the health and happiness of an individual such an individual could do a great deal for the good of society.
Physical education can also contribute to the strength of a nation. If the youths of a country receive proper physical education, they can build up a strong country to protect itself from foreign attacks or invasions.
Further, physical education provides opportunities for contacts with people of other lands. Athletes of all countries meet at various countries at various times to compete with one another and thus promote common understanding among countries for the benefit of one another.
It is therefore, not without reason that physical education has been a part and parcel of academic pursuit today. I do therefore agree that physical education is important to all people.
1. physical (adj): (thuộc) thể chất
2. indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối cần thiết
3. emphasis (n): sự nhấn mạnh, tầm quan trọng
4. muscle (n): bắp thịt, cơ
5. proof (n): chứng cứ, bằng chứng
6. inactive (adj): không hoạt động, thiếu hoạt động
7. individual (adj): cá nhân
8. invasion (n): sự xâm lược
9. opportunity (adj): cơ hội, thời cơ
10. athlete (n): vận động viên; lực sĩ
11. part and parcel : thành phần không thể thiếu
12. pursuit (n): sự theo đuổi nghề nghiệp hoặc hoạt động
The importance of reading newspapersAs the name suggests newspapers are a source of news and information. In several respects they are also a medium of communication among the peoples of the world.
Today there are hundreds of newspapers all over the world. Everywhere there is a keen desire to learn more and more about the affairs of the world. This is partly the result of the spread of education which sharpens one's curiosity to learn about distant lands.
As a source of news: the newspaper is almost indispensable to those whose thirst for knowledge is insatiable. They contain news on events in distant corners of the earth. Information about such events arrives almost immediately. As a result. people everywhere are informed about the most important events in the world verỵ quickly and almost all the same time. For example, if a war breaks out in one part of the world today , the people in the other parts will certainly come to know about it tomorrow. As a result, all the countries of the world are able to do something quickly to help those who have suffered because of the war or to persuade the countries at war to cease fighting.
Newspapers also play an important part in keeping the peoples of the world informed about the troubles that might arise in the future, if nothing is done to prevent them from happening. For example, if a dispute arises between two countries for any reason: the newspapers can keep the peoples of the world informed about what might happen if nothing is done to persuade the two countries to resolve their differences peacefully. In this way many wars have been avoided because of the intervention of some countries in the disputes of many countries which were given prominences in newspapers.
When all this is considered, we feel that there is some silent communication among countries through the medium of newspapers for the common benefit of the countries of the world.
Further, constant reading of newspapers improves one’s outlook on life and makes one a more reasonable person. The importance of the newspaper is therefore obvious.
1. respect (n): phương diện, khía cạnh
2. medium (n): phương tiện
3. keen (adj): mãnh liệt, thiết tha, nhiệt tình
4. insatiable (adj): không thể thoả mãn được
5. cease (v): dừng, ngừng, ngớt, tạnh
6. arise (v): xuất hiện, nảy sinh ra, xảy ra
7. intervention (n): sự can thiệp, sự xen vào
8. prominence(n): sự nổi bật, sự đáng chú ý
Discuss the part played by science in the promotion of public health during the last hundreds yearsOne of the most striking features of the present century is the progress of science and its effects on almost every aspect of social life. Building on the foundations laid by their precedessors the scientists of today are carrying their investigation into ever widening fields of knowledge.
The contribution of science to the promotion of public health in the last hundred years has indeed been tremendous. The unceasing work and experiments of scientists during this time have led to numerous discoveries and removed many misconceptions that many people had before, regarding health illness. The causes of many of the diseases have become generally known. Indeed, many of the facts relating to public health, which are now regarded as common knowledge, were unknown even to the doctors of those days. The fact that germs were the cause of most of the common diseases was not realised by doctors of high repute in the not very distant past. Today, however, even a pupil of a primary school has some knowledge of the destruction that germs can cause. The discovery of germs has indeed revolutionised all medical concepts of disease and illness: everywhere people have come to realise the importance of cleanliness in the prevention of disease.
The researchers or scientists of all countries have also revealed other secrets. It is now known that illness and diseases can be caused by other living creatures also, such as flies, insects and even birds, animals and human beings. Their discoveries have contributed to the progress of medical science. Today, people in all parts of the world are doing their utmost to destroy the creatures that carry diseases. At the same time, however, scientists have also discovered that certain animals and creatures could provide some cure for a variety of diseases that are dangerous to human beings. Even the curative value of certain plants has been discovered.
An important result of the discoveries of scientists has been that, they have also found the cure of almost every disease. It is a practice of the scientists to work for the discovery of a cure as soon as they have discovered the causes of a certain disease. This service of the scientists has promoted the welfare of the human race. In this field of research, scientists make no distinction between races. Whatever they discover is used for the advantage of men everywhere. The progress of humanity is their main aim.
The work of medical scientists also reduced pain to great extent. In the past operations were performed on individuals in a very crude manner. Amputation was a very painful affair. Today, however. the whole body of a man could be cut open without his feeling any pain by the use of chloroform. In this way science has relieved the misery of men tremendously.
Another very important discovery has been that, water, without which life cannot exist, sometimes contains the elements of destruction as well. impure water could spread disease and death at tremendous speed. This knowledge has led people in all parts of the world to use only pure water tor all domestic and other purposes. Water is considered so important a factor in public health that all the governments of the world control its use for drinking purposes. All these discoveries have indeed promoted public health during the last hundred years.
1. foundation(n): sự thành lập, sự sáng lập
2. precedessor (n): người đi trước, người tiền nhiệm
3. unceasing (adj): liên tục, không ngừng, không mệt mỏi
4. misconception (n): quan niệm sai lầm
5. germ(n): vi trùng, mầm bệnh
6. crude (adj): thô thiển, thô bạo
7. amputation (n): thủ thuật cắt cụt
8. chloroform (n): cloroform – một loại hóa chất gây mê
9. factor (n): nhân tố
Water is important for all living things. Do you agree or disagree? Give your reasons.Without water no living thing on the earth could survive. We need water To quench our thirst. water our lands to grow crops or to keep the animals and fowls in our homes alive. Even the plants and insects in all parts in the world need water to live.
We also need water to produce electricity and to carry our goods or trade. Electricity is very important for our comforts today. Almost everything that we use in our homes today depends on the use of electricity. In the same way, water also helps to transport many or the goods that we need for our homes. Ships, rafts and boats carry many things from distant lands and help to exchange goods between one country and another. Transport by water is easier and cheaper than by air or land.
But water has also caused much sorrow and hardship in all parts of the world floods and heavy rains have destroyed crops, lives and property through the centuries and caused much sorrow everywhere.
Yet, water is so important that all living things, including the tiniest of creatures, will continue to struggle to get it whenever or wherever they can.
1. quench (v): làm hết khát
2. fowl (n): chim, gà
The value of educationBriefly, education means the acquisition of knowledge and abilities, and the development of one's character and mental powers by systematic training and instruction. Education is therefore of great value to any person.
It has been realized that a person without education is deprived of many benefits. He not only lacks the knowledge of human affairs but also the ability to appreciate the value of many of the things that concern his own welfare. Thus, he is not able to contribute his full share to the progress of society and the world. Neither is he able to develop his personality to the fullest extent.
One of the greatest benefits of education is that it helps a person to understand the position that he occupies in society. It helps him to speak and conduct himself with confidence and dignity which earn him the respect and admiration of others. Thus, he occupies an important position in society, and people look up to him as their leader.
Another benefit of education today is that it helps one to secure lucrative employment. In the world of today, almost every kind of employment requires some understanding of a few basic principles of science, mathematics, economics, engineering, accountancy or some other subjects on the part of the worker. Thus, the better education a person has better prospects he has of securing attractive positions in the various professions.
Finally, education makes a person sympathetic and considerate towards others. He is helpful to those who need his advice and guidance, and is not critical of those who commit offences or mistakes out of ignorance or necessity. Further, he does not like to hurt the feelings of others. Even if he is extremely provoked, he tries to express his displeasure or anger in words which give the slightest offence to others and yet express his outraged feelings adequately.
As a result of all these qualities that a person acquires through education, he becomes a very pleasant person to associate with. He thus lives a fuller life in socially.
1. briefly(adv): một cách vắn tắt, ngắn gọn
2. acquisition (n): sự giành được, sự thu được
3. deprive (v): lấy đi, tước đi
4 . dignity ( n ): phẩm giá, nhân cách, lòng tự trọng
5. lucrative (adi): có lợi, sinh lợi
5. accountancy (n): nghề kế toán
7. prospects (n. plu.): khả năng thành công, triển vọng
8. offence (n): sự phạm tội
9. ignorance(n): ngu dốt
10. provoke (v): khiêu khích, chọc tức
11. adequately (adv): tương xứng, thích đáng, thoả đáng
12. associate (v): kết giao, giao thiệp
An interesting story I have heard An interesting story that I have heard is about a deserted house in a remote village somewhere in India.
The house had not been occupied for several years after the death of its owner. For some reason no one liked or cared for the owner. Therefore, when he died, he was not buried. His dead body remained in his bed until it was reduced to its skeleton.
One evening a traveller was passing by this house when it suddenly began to rain heavily. Looking for shelter , he ran into this house, where, to his surprise and terror, he saw a human skeleton. But the rain had not stopped and it was rapidly growing dark. He has therefore no choice but to sit there, in the hope that somebody like him might come in to keep him company. But no one came. It was now too dark to see anything outside. He therefore decided to spend the night in that dark and lonely house. The rain continued to fall unabated. The wind was strong and there was much lightning. The traveller lay on the floor but he could not sleep with the skeleton inside the house. After several hours, there was a sudden very cold crawling over his body. he was now too frightened to move. After a while, he heard another strange cry. Just at that moment, a lightning flashed across the sky when he saw a large animal jump out of the house through a window which had been open. He now began to pray for his safety.
While he was in this position, some robbers happened to take shelter in the verandah of the house. They began to talk and laugh loudly. Hearing the voices, the traveller began to ask some questions from inside to make sure that there were some people outside. But the robbers were now frightened. They thought that it was the voice of ghost. They ran away as fast as they could. when morning came. The traveller rushed out of the house and never returned to that part of the country.
1. skeleton (n): bộ xương
2. shelter (n): chỗ nương tựa, chỗ ẩn náu
3. keep s.b company : có ai bên cạnh làm bầu bạn
4. unabated (adj): không giảm sút, không yếu đi
5. crawl (n): làm sởn gai ốc
6. robber (n): kẻ cướp; kẻ trộm
7. verandah (n): hiên, hè, hành lang
My most favorite subject My most favourite subject is English which is today one of the most important languages in the world. It is spoken and understood in all parts of the earth.
English has become an international language for a variety of reasons. One of the most important of them is that the English people have been well-known for their knowledge of science medicine, engineering, government and all other matters that are useful for the progress of the human race. It is because of the scientists of England that the motor- engine has become the most important machine in the world today.
In the same way, English scholar have studied the past and discovered many things of great value to the peoples of the world. Some of the things which were useful to men in the early days were later forgotten by others. Such things are now again being used, owing to the work of English scholars.
The insatiable thirst for knowledge of the English scholars has contributed to the progress of man in almost all fields of his activity. Thousands of books have been written by such scholars on almost every subject that one can think of. Thus, people whose native tongue is not English have learnt English with great interest as a means of acquiring knowledge of all human affairs.
As a result or this interest English is used almost everywhere in the world. It is used in all the important meetings and conferences and debates such as in United Nation. It is also used in all the leading universities in the world and in international trade and commerce. As it is used so widely, English has indeed become a very rich language. People of all the countries of the world have contributed new ideas and thoughts to this language.
Thus, more and more new words are being coined to make this language more and more useful tor the communication of ideas and information among the peoples of the world. It is for all these reasons that I like to study the English language.
1. scholar (n): học giả
2. insatiable thirst : sự khát khao không thể thỏa mãn
3. native tongue (n): tiếng mẹ đẻ
4. debate (n): cuộc tranh luận, cuộc thảo luận, cuộc tranh cãi
5. commerce (n): thương mại, thương nghiệp
Describe an unpleasant dream you have hadEveryone dreams. Some dreams are pleasant and some are not. One of the most unpleasant dreams that I have had concerns a wild creature which used to visit a village every night in search of blood and flesh.
It is difficult for me to give a proper description of the creature. It was tall, black and hairy. Its legs and hands resembled those of a man, but its face was like that of a leopard. It walked like a man but it could also run like an animal when it wished. Its home was not on land but in the sea. However, its thirst for blood was insatiable. Every night when all the people in the village that it used to visit went to bed, it would come out of the sea and quietly go into the village. It would look for a man who might be outside. Such was its luck that it found at least one man every night. Its method of attack was simple. As soon as it saw a man, it would put its powerful hands round his neck and strangle him. At the same time it would sink its teeth into the flesh and drink his blood. This unfortunate man would have no time to shout, for death came swiftly.
In this way, the creature had killed a lot of people, but no one could explain their disappearance. As the foot prints of the creature were similar to those of a tall and big man, no one could distinguish between the foot prints of the creature and those of a man. Then, one night, I happened to be in the village. The creature, however, did not see me when it came. I was at first frightened. but when I saw it had caught and killed a man, 1 felt brave. I knew that it would now not bother to kill me. I therefore decided to follow the creature.
Not suspecting that it was being followed, the creature stopped at a place and began to eat the man. When it was satisfied, it picked up the remains of the man and slowly walked back into the sea which was only a short distance from the village. All the while I moved very cautiously. Then, I ran back to the village and told the people what had happened. On the next day, the villagers waited near the sea with all the weapons that they had. The creature came out for its usual meals, but this was an unfortunate day for the creature. As soon as it was on the land, the villagers surrounded it and killed it. Its cries of pain and anger before it died were such that I suddenly woke up to find that I was only dreaming. I felt greatly relieved.
1. concern (v): liên quan đến, dính líu tới
2. description (n): sự diễn tả, sự miêu tả
3. resemble (v): giống với, tương tự
4. leopard (n): con báo
5. strangle (v): bóp nghẹt
5. swiftly (adv): nhanh; nhanh chóng, ngay lập tức
7. distinguish (v): phân biệt
8. bother (v): áy náy, băn khoăn, lo ngại
9. cautiously (adv): cẩn thẩn, thận trọng
10. surround (v): vây quanh, bao quanh
Describe your last holidayDuring my last school holidays. I spent a few days at my cousin's house at Morib, a well-known sea resort. I shall never forget that visit.
On the day I arrived at Morib, my cousin told me that he would do to make my stay there a very interesting one. He said that he would first make a raft to use it in the sea. Then he would buy fishing net to catch some fish in the shallow waters near the coast. When I heard all this, I was very delighted because it was for these reasons that I had decided to visit my cousin. We then walked up to the beach which is near his house.
While we were there, sometime in the evening, the sea looked extremely beautiful. I saw the islands and hills in the distance, the birds in the air, and a few boys and girls playing on the beach. I also saw some fishermen coming out of the water with their catch. All this was indeed very interesting to look at.
On the next day, my cousin and I collected some tree trunks from the forest nearby. As my cousin's house is close to the sea, we decided to make the raft on the beach itself. It took us almost the whole morning to make the raft. We then had our lunch and went to Banting, the nearest town, to buy fishing net. After that we returned to my cousin's house.
In the evening we put the ran on the sea. The water was still high, but the raft floated quite well. My cousin and I sat on it and began to row it by using the oars that we had made ourselves. We felt very happy indeed and continued to row it. We remained on it for a long time, but as it was already getting dark we did not go far. We returned to the shore and tied the raft to a tree.
On the next day, we went out to catch some crabs and fish. We used the net that we had bought and caught a lot of fish. Then, we had our lunch and went out again on the ran. we continued to row it as far as we could. It was really a pleasure to be away from the shore. The sea was calm and we could row with ease. My cousin told me many interesting things about Morib. We then returned to the shore.
In this way, I spent my holidays happily at Morib, a place I shall never forget.
1. sea resort (n): nơi nghỉ mát ở bờ biển
2. raft (n): cái bè, cái mảng
3. delighted (adj): hào hứng, hài lòng
4. extremely (adv): tột cùng, cực độ, cực kì
5. trunk (n): thân cày
7. row (v): chèo thuyền
8. oar (n): mái chèo
9. remain (v): ở lại
10. to get dark : (trời) tối dần
11. tie (v): buộc, cột, tróí
12. crab (n): con cua
13. ease (n): sự dễ dàng
Journalism as a career Almost everyone who can read and write sometimes feels the urge to write on some favourite topic. But some people love writing so much that they spend much of their time in writing something on various subjects for the sheer pleasure of writing. Such people usually become skillful writers; and if the ability to write with ease and facility was enough to achieve success in the field of journalism, many people would make journalism their career.
In countries like England and Japan, where there are hundreds of newspapers and journals, journalism is an attractive profession. It is a very good source or income to many. But in Malaysia there are so few newspapers and journals that journalism offers almost no prospect of success. Even in England and Japan, however, many people have failed to achieve any success in this field. To be successful in journalism, one must have many other qualities, besides the ability to write effectively. One of the most important qualities is the ability to judge what the average reader likes or dislikes. If one writes for a political journal, one should have a fair knowledge of what the readers of that journal expect from it. If one writes for a women's journal, one should know almost instinctively what its readers prefer. Accordingly, the journalist should gather information from all possible sources for his articles and stories for publication. He may even have to distort or omit certain facts and information, which in his judgement may appear unpleasant to his readers. Further, if certain unpleasant facts have to be revealed to his readers, he has to employ words with such skill that his readers will take almost no offence. All these require great intellectual qualities.
Besides, to collect information, the journalist has to travel extensively and meet many people, far and near. As too much travelling involve great physical activity, the journalist has to pay sufficient attention to his health to keep himself strong. He has also to cultivate pleasing habits to meet all sorts of people. He must also he prepared to work under very unpleasant circumstances. For example, if he is working for a popular newspaper, he may have to be at the scene or a battle and risk his life to send his report to his newspaper office. All this involves great personal sacrifice.
Finally, a good journalist should have a good grasp of the constitutional rights of the citizens of his country and the policies of his government. He should also know the laws of libel and slander. Ignorance of any or these may lead him to make unfair criticisms and disclosures which may cause serious troubles in the country. Thus, success in journalism is not easy to attain, and only a few people make it their career.
1. facility (n): khả năng học hoăc làm việc một cách dễ dàng
2. achieve (v): đạt được, giành được
3. journalism (n): nghề làm báo, viết báo
4 . judge ( v ): xét đoán, phán đoán, đánh giá
5. instinctively (adv): theo bản năng, do bản năng
6. distort (n): bóp méo, xuyên tạc
7. sufficient (adj): đầy đủ
8. circumstance (n) : hoàn cảnh, trường hợp
9. constitutional (adj) : thuộc hiến pháp, theo hiến pháp
10. libel (n) : lời phỉ báng, tội phỉ báng
11. slander (n): sự vu khống. sự vu cáo
12. disclosure (n) : sự vạch trần, sự phơi bày
Beauty in natureBeauty is hard to define but easy to recognise. In nature beauty may be discerned in all things and places, even in the most unexpected regions of the earth. There is beauty in the infinite variety of flowers, birds, animals and plants, many of which are vividly colourful.
There is beauty in mountains, valleys and hills, and in the skies. Thus, beauty can be found in all the creations of God. Then hunter who scans the forests for his quarry is often fascinated by the beauty that he finds in objects, which conceal beautiful flowers from human sight, suddenly reveal their secrets to him when he stumbles over them. The fisherman who turns to the sea for his livelihood is fascinated by the beauty of the multitudinous creatures that swarm in the seas. Many of these creatures are found even on the shore. But the oceans often conceal the beauty that lies below their surface, and to catch a glimpse of the beauty of the world below the sea, hundreds of divers everywhere explore the bottoms of the oceans, even at the risk of losing their lives in the unknown regions of the world below.
Even the farmer and the traveller appreciate the beauty that is found in nature. The farmer finds beauty in the variety of the plants that he grows. The traveller is impressed with the beauty of distant hills and mountains, and the beauty of meadering rivers in large valleys. He is also appreciative of the beauty of the night. As he travel in the moon-light, he looks at the landscape and is lost in admiration of it.
The beauty in nature is also appreciated by others. Almost every one delights to see the rushing streams and the numerous birds and animals that may be found in every part of the earth, for these are part of the ornaments of nature. Even the tiniest of creatures has a beauty of its own. In search of this beauty in nature, men in all parts of the world are travelling great distances and spending a great deal of money, even in some cases, even their life savings. It is this appreciation of natural beauty that impels men to visit distant lands which have a beauty of their own. Men have also visited the islands that are spread throughout the world in search of the natural beauty. Many have seen visited the cold deserts in the Artics as well as the hot deserts where few plants grow, in search of the beauty that may be found in these regions, despite the lack of vegetation and animals life. The deserts are indeed the home of many beautiful plants and animals which find sufficient refuge in these pans, and many of the birds too, here are remarkable for their beauty.
But the person who is most appreciative of natural beauty is the poet who finds music and beauty even in the movement of the clouds and winds. His deep appreciation of the beauty that he finds around him impels him to give utterance to it in the most expressive language, which is itself often of imperishable beauty.
1. discern (v): nhận thức, thấy rõ
2. God (n): chúa trời, thượng đế
3. scan (v): xem tỉ mỉ, kiểm tra cẩn thận
4. quarry (n): con mồi
5. conceal (v): giấu giếm, che đậy
6. reveal (v): bộc lộ, biểu lộ, tiết lộ
7. stumble (v): vấp, trượt chân
8. multitudinous (adj): rất nhiều, vô số kể
9. glimpse (n): cái nhìn thoáng qua
10. meander (v): ngoằn ngoèo, quanh co, khúc khuỷu
11. ornament (n): đồ trang hoàng, đồ trang trí
12. impel (v): thúc ép, bắt buộc
13. refuge (n): nơi trốn tránh, nơi ẩn náu, nơi trú ấn
14. remarkable (adj): đáng chú ý, đáng để ý
15. utterance (n): sự phát biểu, sự bày tỏ
16. imperishable (adj): bất hủ, bất tử, bất diệt
Do you agree that the study of Mathematics is essential to the progress of the human race?Though the study of Mathematics had occupied the attention of Egyptian and Greek scholars centuries ago, yet it was only after the advent of the Industrial Revolution that the importance of the subject was fully realised by scholars and educationists everywhere. Today, Mathematics is one of the most important subjects in all the schools and universities of the world.
Before the Industrial Revolution, men lived very simple lives. Agriculture, hunting and fishing were then their main sources of livelihood. It did not occur to them that their lives could be made more comfortable if they only exercised their mental faculties a little more and organised a system of knowledge, which we now call the Science, and applied it to practical purposes. Thus, they turned to nature for sustenance, and were satisfied with what they could acquire from nature with their skills. This simple mode of existence was, however, disturbed by the inventions of a few men, sometime in the eighteenth century, which caused people everywhere to think of new ways of improving their conditions of living. The inventions revealed new sources of comfort, and power for the production of goods. Thus, the Industrial Revolution began. More and more machines were invented for the rapid production of goods, and the study of Mathematics began to receive great encouragement, for it was realised that machines function on mathematical principles.
The intensive study of Mathematics revealed its potentialities. It was soon applied not only to invent new machinery but also to explain abstruse subjects such as Physics, Logic and many others. In fact, Mathematics is now used to teach and explain almost every important subject in schools and universities. Even the construction of buildings and bridges requires a deep knowledge of Mathematics.
The study of Mathematics has also helped to increase the mental powers of men. They are not only able to think more clearly than they could before but are also able to understand and explain many of the things which they could not understand earlier.
Sometimes, however, Mathematical principles have been applied for tragic consequences. In battles and wars, bombs and cannon-balls have been released with remarkable accuracy to destroy the enemy. This fact reveals how knowledge of Mathematics could be used to hinder human progress. But such a situation develops only when men have lost their patience and their capacity for compromise and fortunately the leaders of the world today are trying their utmost to remove the causes for war.
In general, however, men have a natural impulse to live in peace and harmony with others, and almost every invention is aimed at promoting the welfare of the peoples of the world. Thus, the human race has benefited from the efforts of those who have made the fullest use of Mathematical principles for all their inventions. I therefore agree that the study of Mathematics is essential to the progress of the human race.
1. the mental faculties: năng lực, trí tuệ
2. sustenance (n): chất bố, sự bổ dưỡng
3. encouragement (n): niềm khích lệ, niềm cổ vũ, niềm động viên
4. intensive (adj): chuyên sâu, cao độ, mạnh mẽ, sâu sắc, tập trung
5. potentiality (n): tiềm năng, tiềm lực
6. abstruse (adj): khó hiểu, thâm thuý, sâu sắc
7. consequence (n): hậu quả, kết quả
8. cannon-ball (n): đạn trái phá
9. impulse (n): sự thúc đẩy, sự thôi thúc
10. welfare (n): hạnh phúc, sự thịnh vượng
What contributions can writers make to the promtion of goodwill among the people of a country?Since remote antiquity writers in every country have exerted a profound influence on the minds of the people. The writings or political philosophers, like Rousseau and Voltaire, have even caused revolutions and diverted the course of history. Such is the power of writers who express their ideas and views with lucidity and cogency.
Most writers who dwell upon the affairs of their countries are deeply conscious of their responsibility towards their countries and compatriots. This consciousness not only impels them to avoid issues which tend to divide the people but also to express their views on delicate issues in the most temperate language. Their main aim is to promote goodwill among the people of the country, and this they try to achieve in various ways.
In a country dominated by people of the same race and language, writers can promote goodwill among its people by clarifying political and economic issues which the people understand only vaguely. If the people are divided by ideological differences or by differences of economic status, writers can exercise their influence to remove the resentment and prejudices among the people. Even those who write on social problems can emphasise the issues that tend to unite the people. They can also suggest ways and means of removing the causes of resentment and frustration that exist among the people. As the written word is more effective than the spoken word, people tend to accept the views of writers more readily than those expressed verbally by various people.
But it is in countries in which people of various races reside that writers can make the greatest contribution to the promotion of goodwill among the people. In a country like Malaya, for example, writers can concentrate on the issues that tend to unite the people. They should not be too critical of the attitudes of one race to gratify the emotions of another race. If they do so, they will incite racial discord and even violence which may affect the whole country adversely. If short speeches to a small group of people can cause riots and racial conflicts in all parts of the country, writers can do greater harm, for the written word circulates more extensively for a longer period.
This power of the written word, however, could be used by writers for the benefit of the whole nation. By giving prominence to the social aspects of life that affect the people as human beings and as individuals of a particular race, writers can help in the development of a common outlook among the people. They could also help in making the people realise the benefits in peace and harmony. A study of the history of many countries reveals how the ways and habits of its people are influenced by the pen of distinguished writers. Even the leaders of the country are often guided by the opinions of noted writers.
Indeed, in times of great discontent in a country, writers advise the people to exercise patience and moderation in expressing their grievance. There are many examples of how writers in various countries have been able to remove feelings of hatred among the people. The newspaper, for example, which is the product of the combined effort of many writers, is able to exert a restraining influence on people who are easily provoked. This is the best example of what writers could do to promote goodwill among the people of a country.
1. antiquity (n): thời xưa
2. divert (v) : làm đổi hướng
3. lucidity (n): sự rõ ràng, minh bạch
4. cogency (v): sự vững chắc, sức thuyết phục
5. dwell upon (v): chuyên chú vào
6. conscious (adj): có ý thức, biết rõ
7. compatriot (n): đồng bào
8. delicate (adj): tinh vi, tinh tế, tế nhị
9. dominate (v): chiếm ưu thế, chi phối, thống trị
10. clarify (v): làm cho dễ hiểu
11. vaguely (adv): mơ hồ, ngờ ngợ
12. ideological (adj): thuộc hệ tư tưởng
13. prejudice (n): sự thành kiến, định kiến, thiên kiến
14. frustration (n): tâm trạng thất vọng, vỡ mộng
15. verbally (adv): bằng lời nói
16. adversely (adv): bất lợi
17. circulate (v): lưu truyền, truyền bá
18. discontent (n): sự bất mãn, sự bất bình
19. grievance (n): lời phàn nàn, lời kêu ca, lời than phiền, nỗi bất bình
Which language do you think has made the greatest contribution to the promotion of better understanding among the peoples of the world?The human race is divided by a multiplicity of languages, many of which have come to play an important part in the affairs of the world.
A little reflection reveals that the importance of a language is associated mainly with the ideas and knowledge it contains. The more ideas a language can convey to the peoples of the world, the more it will be used by people everywhere. Thus, the language that is used most extensively is the language that makes the greatest contribution to human progress and mutual understanding between peoples.
It cannot be denied that today the most widely used language is the English language. There are few countries in which this language is not understood or used. Even the countries which preached hatred for everything English, including the English language, during their struggle for independence from British rule such as India, found it difficult to dispense with this language after they became independent. Therefore, they not only continued to use English in all spheres of public activity but also began to encourage the use and study of the English language as means of achieving national progress and unity. These efforts on the part of the various countries of the world convey an idea of the importance of the English language.
It would be instructive, however to consider the reason for the extensive use of the English language. One of the reasons is that several countries in the world have been occupied mainly by immigrants from England such as the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. It is therefore not surprising that the people of such countries have continued to use the English language, though they have severed their political connexions with their mother country and acquired independent status, for one cannot discard one’s language easily. Another reason is that, in the course or history, a large number of countries throughout the world came directly under British rule, where English was made the main language for administrative, commercial and all other purposes.
As the leading colonial power in the world, England has indeed exerted a profound influence on the affairs of the world, though her colonial possessions are rapidly becoming independent one after the other. Concomitantly, the English language too has come to play a leading role in international communication. Thus, many people whose native language is not English have studied English and become more conversation with English than with their own languages. This is especially true with the leaders of the people to whom English is a foreign language. As a result, the English language is used by them not only in the administration of their countries but also in all their institutions of higher learning.
The most important reason for the pre-eminence of the English language, however, is that it is the source of all knowledge. The Industrial Revolution that began in England and spread to other countries revealed the English genius for invention. Even the political and social institutions of England, which were affected tremendously by the Industrial Revolution, have evoked the admiration of all countries. The knowledge, ideas, experiences and profound thoughts of the English people have made a deep impression on the minds of the people of other countries. Innumerable books have been written in the English language on all branches of study, and such is the thirst of English scholars for knowledge and their desire to communicate it, that they have even translated books of great value from other language to English for the benefit of all. Writers of other nationalities too have written a great number of books in English and made a substantial contribution to the enrichment of the English language. As a result of all these efforts, the English language has become the main avenue to the greatest storehouse or information. Therefore, people everywhere have developed a special respect for the language and they continue to learn it with avidity.
As the English language is used so extensively it is mainly in this language that the peoples of the world communicate with and understand one another. No other language has such a wide appeal or popularity. I am therefore of the opinion that it is the English language that has made the greatest contribution to the promotion of the better understanding among the peoples of the world.
1. multiplicity (n): vô số
2. mutual (adj): qua lại, lẫn nhau
3. preach (v): chủ trương, thuyết giáo
4. immigrant (n) : người nhập cư
5. connexion (n) : mối quan hệ
6. discard (v) : vứt bỏ, thải hồi
7. administrative (adj) : (thuộc) hành chính
8. commercial (adj) : (thuộc) thương mại
9. concomitantly (adv) : đi đôi với, đồng thời
10. pre-eminence (n) : sưu việt hơn hẳn
11. evoke (v): gợi lên
12. innumerable (adj) : vô số
13. substantial (adj) : lớn lao, đáng kể, quan trọng
14. avidity (n) : sự khát khao
15. appeal (n) : sự hấp dẫn
LibertySince his appearance on the earth, man has instinctively longed for liberty, an ideal which has inspired revolts and revolutions throughout the long history of the human race.
The yearning for liberty or freedom is not restricted to man alone. Even animals, birds and all living creatures love the freedom that God has given to them. Like men, these creatures will never submit to captivity without resistance. Neither will they cease to make tenacious efforts to escape, once they are captured.
In the early days of their existence, men were free to pursue their own affairs, within the limits of their own ability. They moved from place to place in small isolated groups and families, in search of food, which consisted of edible plants. fruits and the flesh of animals. The pursuit of the means of survival was their only occupation, and the things that restricted their freedom of movement, to some extent, were their own fears of the unknown and natural barriers such as mountains, dense forests, and rivers. These were no restraints imposed upon them by human institution and they enjoyed their liberty.
Gradually, men learned to live in communities and various institutions were established, which soon curtailed their liberty to a great extent. Rules were made for the cohesions of each community and obedience to those rules was secured by the threat of punishment. This element of compulsion imposed upon the conduct of the individuals in the community restricted the liberty of the people; but the greater security that men enjoyed in community life provided the incentive to partial sacrifices.
Soon, however, conflicts developed among the various communities. The stronger one conquered the weaker one and in the contest for power and domination, hundreds of people lost their liberty completely. The enslavement and suppression of one group of people by another provided the stimulus for numerous revolts and revolutions for liberty which have not ceased till this day. Even in the same community. Sometimes, there were divisions. The rulers, who came to be known as kings, with the development of the communities into countries, were at variance with their subjects. To maintain their status and to assert their authority, kings developed their own theories of kingship, and many of them ruled in the most despotic manner. Defiance of the king's authority was punished by death and imprisonment. What constituted defiance was decided arbitrarily by the king or his ministers, and thousands or people were deprived of their liberty.
Eventually, however, despotism aroused the fury of political thinkers and writers in many countries. A crusade then began against oppression and despotism, and the cry for liberty was heard everywhere. Revolutions erupted; despotic rulers were overthrown, and new rulers were compelled to rule with the consent of the people. The French Revolution of the eighteenth century is the best example of the extremity to which people were prepared to go to retain or regain their liberty, which is claimed to be the birth-right of every man.
But liberty does not mean licence. In other words, men's liberty of action should not be excessive. The French Revolution is, unfortunately, also the best example of how men may lose their sense of proportion and justice, in their attempts to assert their liberty. In that revolution hundreds of innocent men, women, and children lost their lives at the hands of those who took full advantage of the anarchy that then prevailed in France, to assert their liberty of action. Such actions are indeed licentious .
Thus, it may be argued that liberty will remain the battle-cry of all the people, but those who have it should not use it to hurt or offend others or to deprive others of their liberty.
1. liberty (n): sự tự do, quyền tự do
2. revolt (n): cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa, cuộc nổi loạn
3. submit (v): chịu phục tùng, quy phục, ngừng phản kháng
4. tenacious (adj): kiên trì, ngoan cường, ngoan cố
5. isolated (adj): biệt lập, cô đơn
6. restraint (n): sự kiềm chế, sự gò bó, sự ràng buộc
7. curtail (v): tước đi, lấy đi
8. cohesion (n): sự dính liền, sự cố kết
9. compulsion (n): sự ép buộc, sự cưỡng bức
10. conquer (v): chinh phục, chế ngự
11. enslavement (n): sự nô dịch hoá, tình trạng bị nô dịch
12. suppression (n): sự đàn áp hoặc bị đàn áp
13. stimulus (n): sự kích thích, tác nhân kích thích
14. status (n): đia vị, thân phận, thân thế
15. despotic (adj): chuyên chế, chuyên quyền, bạo ngược
16. defiance (n): sự công khai kháng cự hoặc không tuân theo
17. constitute (v): cấu thành, tạo thành
18. arbitrarily (adv): chuyên quyền, độc đoán
19. arouse (v): đánh thức, khuâý động, gợi
20. crusade (n): chiến dịch; cuộc vận động lớn
21. claim (v): khẳng định, quá quyết
22. excessive (adj): quá thể, quá đáng
23. anarchy (n): tình trạng vô chính phú, tình trạng hỗn loạn
24. prevail (v): thắng thế, chiếm ưu thế, phổ biến khắp nơi
25. licentious (adj): bừa bãi, phóng túng
26. oppress (v): áp bức, đàn áp
Discuss the role of the police force in societyThe police force plays a vital role in the maintenance of law and order in society. It is a source of moral strength, confidence and happiness to all individuals who seek to live a good life in society.
The ideal of a police force has been conceived centuries ago, when lawyers acts were committed everywhere; but it was only in the nineteenth century that effectual steps were taken to build up a strong police force in almost every country. Life, before the introduction of the police force, was indeed insecure. Violent acts such as murder were committed with impunity by cruel and reckless men. Even those who were weak and feared revenge by stronger men nevertheless found it safe sometimes to commit lesser crimes such as theft and robbery. Without the restraining influence of a powerful organization such as the police force, the passions of men were aroused easily, and lawlessness prevailed everywhere. Individuals grouped themselves together and terrorized whole villages and towns, and there were wars between rival groups. This state of affairs caused great sorrow and acute anxiety to whole communities and everyone lived in constant fear, uncertain even about his immediate future.
The establishment of the police force, however, has changed the state of affairs in society. The police force has enabled the law courts, which have existed since ancient times, in certain countries even before the introduction of the police force, to function more efficiently. Criminals are apprehended and punished, with the help of the police force, to deter others from committing acts injurious to innocent citizens. Most people therefore have learned to control their criminal tendencies. The alertness of the police force in the detection of crimes has not only discouraged most people from breaking the laws of society but also compelled them to exercise restrain and self-discipline. Consequently, society as a whole is more peaceful than what it was before the establishment of the police force.
As the aim of the police force is to promote the welfare of society, it is constantly engaged in creating the conditions in which people can live and pursue their own affairs without interference from thoughtless individuals. The rights of every member in society are protected by the courts through the agency of the police force, which is therefore a source of inspiration and hope to all law-abiding citizens. Any interference with the rights of one citizen by another is frowned upon by the police force.
In their efforts to promote the welfare of society the police force extends its activities even to the remotest regions of the country. If a man is lost in a dense forest or at sea by his own fault or otherwise, members of the force do their utmost to find and bring him back to his family, however unpleasant the effort may prove. Seldom do they give up their search if they are certain that the man still survives. Dedicated to the service of society, they are prepared to work under any conditions to protect a person, sometimes even at the risk of losing their own lives.
The knowledge of the activities in which the police force is engaged has increased the confidence and moral strength of people in society. Even the cripple and invalid are given every protection. Thus, people today can live in greater security and happiness than they could before. Society therefore owes a great debt of gratitude to the police force.
1. vital (adj): sống còn, quan trọng
2. seek (v): mưu cầu, theo đuổi
3. conceive (v): hình thành 1 ý nghĩ, trong đầu có ý tưởng
4. commit (v): phạm lỗi
5. impunity (n): sự không bị trừng phạt
5 . rival (adj ): đối địch, cạnh tranh
7. ancient (adj) : xưa, cổ
8. apprehend (v) : bắt, tóm, nắm, lấy
9. deter (v) : ngăn cản, ngăn chặn, làm nản lòng
10. alertness (n): sự tỉnh táo, sự cảnh giác
11. discourage (v) : làm nản lòng, làm chán nản
12. compel (v) : bắt buộc, thúc ép
13. consequently (adv) : do đó, vì vậy, bởi vậy, cho nên
14. interference (n) : sự can thiệp, sự xen vào
15. law-abiding : trung thành với pháp luật, tuân theo luật pháp
16. frown (v) : không bằng lòng, phản đối
17. prove (v): tỏ ra, chứng tỏ, chứng minh
18. dedicated (adj): tận tụy, tận tâm
19. gratitude (n): lòng biết ơn, sự nhớ ơn
Discuss the view that tolerance is essential for peace and harmony in any community or countryThe progress of any community or country depends largely on the conduct of the people who reside in it. Discontent, jealousies, prejudices, and intolerance among a few of the people can cause great damage to the whole community or country.
Gregarious by nature, men hate to live in isolation. The urge for association, therefore, enables men to tolerate the views and habits of others, to great extent. Most men have come to realise that the cohesion of society cannot be secured without the exercise of tolerance on the part of its members.
A community or country is composed of various types of people, whose psychological social an temperamental attitudes and needs are not the same. In a great number of cases, there are fundamental differences even in race, language and religion among the people. This is the result of the economic and social necessities of the modern age, which have compelled people to leave their original homes and live among people of foreign descent. These diversities in a community or country necessitate the maintenance of a tolerant attitude on the part of the people towards one another. They have to respect the cultural and social habits and beliefs of one another and refrain themselves from doing, or saying things which might offend the susceptibilities of some people. The racial and religious clashes that have occurred in various parts of the world indicate the damage that the expression of hatred and prejudice can cause in a country. Even differences in the colour of the skin can cause trouble and violence in a community, and when passions are aroused, men lose their reason and sense of proportion and indulge in the most barbaric acts. Innocent lives become the victims of insensate cruelty.
That tolerance is essential for peace and harmony in a country could be illustrated by reference to the people in Malaysia, a country in which people of various races reside. Despite cultural, racial and religious differences among themselves, the people here have lived for generations in peace and harmony. They have also helped one another in various ways at various times. It must be admitted, however, there have been a few incidents from time to time caused by communal differences in certain localities, yet they can hardly be attributed to the general uprising of the races against one another. In fact, the goodwill that prevails among the different races of people here has contributed to the development of a new nation, which has become the envy of many countries. The racial unity among the people is the main factor that has contributed to the progress of the country in all spheres of activity.
Another country that deserves mention is the United States of America. The people of this country too are made up of a diversity of races and cultures. Yet, by tolerance, co-operation and goodwill among the people as a whole, it has become the richest country in the world. All this proves what could be achieved by the people of a community or country who exercise tolerance among themselves.
1. tolerance (n): sự khoan dung, lòng khoan dung, sự tha thứ
2. conduct (n): hạnh kiểm, tư cách đạo đức
3. reside (v): có nhà của mình ở một nơi nhất định, cư trú
4. prejudice (n): định kiến, thành kiến
5. gregarious (adj): sống thành tập thể
6. psychological (adj): thuộc tâm lý
7. temperamental (adj): thất thường, hay thay đổi không bình tĩnh
8. diversity (n): tính đa dạng
9. necessitate (v): đỏi hỏi cần phải có
10. refrain (v): kiềm chế làm việc gì, cố nhịn, cố nín
11. susceptibility (n): tính nhạy cảm, dễ xúc cảm, tự ái
12. clash (n): sự xung đột, sự va chạm
13. hatred (n): lòng căm thù, căm hờn, căm ghét
14. proportion (n): sự cân xứng, sự cân đối
15. indulge (v): ham mê, theo đuổi
15. barbaric (adj): dã man, man rợ
17. insensate (adi): không cảm xúc, nhẫn tâm, điên rồ
18. despite (prep): bất chấp, mặc dù
19. communal (adj) (thuộc) các nhóm chủng tộc và tôn giáo đối lập ở 1 vùng
20. attribute (v) : cho là do, quy cho
21. uprising (n) cuộc nổi dậy, cuộc khởi nghĩa
22. contribute (n) : đóng góp, góp phần
23. envy (n) : sự thèm muốn, sự ghen tị, sự đố kỵ
24. sphere (n) : lĩnh vực, phạm vi ảnh hưởng
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having too many university graduates in your countryUniversity education confers many benefits on the individual. It develops his intellect and broadens his outlook on life, and enables him to discriminate between the good and the bad. Thus, in the past, only those who sought to acquire these benefits proceeded to the various universities in the world. Today, however, men are usually driven to the universities by economic necessity. Few of them seek the true benefits of education, for the growing competition for positions in the various professions has made it difficult to secure proper employment without some university degrees. As a consequence, there are a large number of university graduates today in almost every country.
The advantages of having too many university graduates in a country, however, are many. In my country, for example, the presence of a large number of graduates would enable the government of my country lo find sufficient men to assume responsible positions in the various administrative departments. It would also raise the status of the country in the eyes of the world, as one with a high literacy rate. The efficiency of the administrative organs of the state would also be increased, and in time of national crises, the government could draw on the intellectual resources of the people. Even the younger generation of men would benefit from the contacts with university graduates. They would draw inspiration from the work of the graduates and themselves develop, consciously or unconsciously, some of the mental abilities of the graduates. In other words, the presence of a large number of university graduates would create an atmosphere conducive to the mental development of the younger people in the country.
The various private firms and industries too would benefit from the presence of large number of university graduates in my country. It would facilitate the selection of suitable men for positions of responsibility in the firms and industries. This would contribute substantially to the progress and productivity of the business concerns.
There would, however, also be certain disadvantages in having too many university graduates in my country. The worst of them would be that people without university qualifications would find themselves in a precarious position. Good positions in the various professions would be closed to them. Thus, they would have to be content with humble positions and meagre incomes, Without any prospects of promotion in their respective places of work. Besides, the general drop in salary scales owing to the competition among graduates for position, would further add to the misery of those without university training, for employers would always look for university graduates, even for low positions.
Another disadvantage would be that those without university degrees would be regarded as ignorant and of no consequence. They would receive little respect, unless they were wealthy. Though the university graduates may not deliberately adopt such an attitude towards them, yet they would always remain sensitive to any remarks upon their abilities. Such a situation would produce a group of disgruntle men, and there would be much unemployment among those without university education, thus giving rise to many problems in the country.
1. confer (v): trao hoặc tặng
2. intellect (n): khả năng hiểu biết, trí tuệ, trí năng
3. discriminate (v): phân biệt
4. consequence (n): hậu quả, kết quả
5. sufficient (adj) : đủ
6. assume (v) : nắm lấy, chiếm lấy
7. literacy (n) : sự biết viết, biết đọc
8. efficiency (adj): hiệu quả, năng lực, khả năng
9. conducive (adj): có ích, có lợi
10. facilitate (v) : làm cho dễ dàng, làm cho thuận tiện
11. substantially (adv): về thực chất, căn bản
12. precarious (adj) : tạm thời, nhất thời, không ổn định
13. humble (adj) : thấp kém, hèn mọn
14. meagre (adj) : nghèo nàn, xoàng, đạm bạc
15. scale (n) : quy mô, phạm vi
16. owing to (prep): do vì, bởi vì
17. deliberately (adv): một cách tính toán, có chủ tâm
18. adopt (v): chấp nhận, thông qua
19. disgruntled (adj): bực tức
War and peaceSince the time men learned to live in communities, in the remote past, wars have been fought at regular intervals in various parts of the world. In fact, the history of the human race is mainly a record of the battles and wars fought in the past between communities and nations.
Wars are caused mainly by human greed and ambition. In the early days of men's existence, many communities lived a very hard life, owing perhaps to the lack of geographical advantages or intellectual ability. As a result, the prosperity of other communities aroused their greed and envy, and wars between communities became inevitable. One side fought to conquer the prosperous communities in order to gain control of the means of prosperity, and the other side fought to defend its independence and way of life. With the passage of time, the communities developed into nations, and wars were fought on a bigger scale; but the basic causes of war remained the same. It was only occasionally that battles were fought with other aims such as the capture of a woman to satisfy the sexual of a conqueror or ruler.
However, success in wars stirred the ambition of many nations. Wars were then fought for domination and extension of power. Several small nations soon came under the dominion of a powerful country, which then developed into an Empire. The Roman Empire, for example, was created mainly by conquest. Even the personal ambitions of some individuals have been the cause of wars at times. The ambitions of Napoleon and Hitler for world conquest caused many battles, in which millions of people, young and old, gave their lives.
The devastation caused by wars, however, has always aroused the conscience of several nations, and attempts have been made by such nations to prevent wars in the future. Their leaders have met at various times, in the course of history, to discuss peace and to find a way of removing the causes of war. It is this urge that led to the creation of the United Nations, after the failure of the League of Nations, which today is doing its utmost to maintain peace between nations.
But the desire peace has instead led to further wars, for peace often demands the destruction of the ambitions of those who begin wars. The wars begun by Napoleon and Hitler could be ended only by fighting further wars to destroy these men, who have been responsible for the greatest sufferings in the history of the world. Human ambition, however, is indifferent to the lessons of history. In times of wars, men seek peace; but when there is peace, there are attempts to begin wars. Once a war is begun, however, those responsible for it are crushed in the end. Yet ambitious countries and individuals are still trying to extend their power. but they are being opposed by those who love peace. Thus, wars will continue to exist, while at the same time attempts will be made to attain peace in the world.
1. at regular intervals (n): đều đặn
2. greed (n): tính tham lam
3. prosperity (n): sự thịnh vượng
4 . conquer (v): chinh phục, xâm chiếm
5. defend (v): bảo vệ
6. lust (n): sự thèm khát, lòng tham
7. stir (v): kích thích, khích động, xúi giục
8. domination (n): sự thống trị
9. dominion (n): quyền thống trị, quyền chi phối
10. devastation (n): sự tàn phá, sự phá hủy
11. conscience (n): lương tâm
12 . failure (n): sự thất bại, cố gắng không thành công
13. League of Nations (n): Hội Quốc Liên
14. destruction (n): sự phá hủy, sự tiêu diệt
1S. crush (v): tiêu diệt địch, dẹp tan, làm tiêu tan
16. oppose (v): chống đối, phản đối
17. attain (v): đạt được, giành được
CourageCourage, like all human qualities, is an abstract thing; but it is this quality in man that has enabled him to advance against all natural obstacles through the centuries.
Endowed with intelligence and manual skills man's courage, even in the early days of his existence, enabled him to accept the challenges of nature. He not only lived in the midst of wild animals but also began to domesticate many of them for his own advantage. Soon, even the most ferocious and largest of animals learnt to respect his courage. They began to avoid him as far as they could.
Indeed, without courage man would never be able to advance from the primitive stage. He would never try to reach the skies or explore the depths of the oceans; but impelled by courage, he left his immediate confines to defy nature, and soon made the world more hospitable and secure for himself. It is this irrespressible energy of man, aided by his courage, that has contributed to the comfort and happiness that people everywhere enjoy today.
Courage is therefore indispensable to almost all human activities. Men need courage to face their enemies and the uncertainties of life. They need courage to operate machinery, to fly aeroplanes, to construct tall buildings. In fact, they need courage to meet all the dangers that constantly threaten them in all their pursuits. Even to accept the responsibilities of a family requires extreme courage.
Human courage and valour have been displayed most strikingly in all the battles that have been fought in the history of mankind. Men have fought against men with deadly weapons to protect themselves their countries, families and home. For the protection and comfort of their families, men have also faced other dangers. They have defied dangerous currents in rivers to bring food for their families by boats and rafts. They have also defied storm and battled the waves of the oceans to extract food from them.
Courage, however, does not assert itself always. The instinct of self- preservation usually impels men to seek safety in fight or concealment whenever there is a threat to personal security. It is in moments of desperation that courage asserts itself and enables one to meet all threats; and it is in such moments that men also discover their own physical strength, and other advantages of resistance. For instance, a man who is attacked by an animal will fiercely in an effort to avert tragedy to himself, and in the process discover his own strength and the advantages of using certain weapons to overpower his adversary.
Feelings of loyalty and devotion too have often aroused the courage of amen. A person who is devoted to his family fights tooth and nail to protect his family from destruction or extinction, whatever the consequences to himself. Similarly, a loyal servant may give his life for the protection of his master.
Thus, courage is the most important quality in man. He needs it for his own advancement and to meet all the challenges of his existence.
1. obstacle (n): sự cản trở, trở ngại, chướng ngại vật
2. endow (v): phú cho, ban cho
3. manual (adj): thủ công
4. challenge (n): sự thách thức
5. ferocious(adj): dữ tợn, hung ác, dã man, tàn bạo
6. hospitable (adj): mến khách, hiếu khách
7. irrepressible (adj): không thể kìm nén được
8. indispensable (adj): tuyệt đối không thể thiếu được
9. strikingly (adv): nổi bật, đáng chú ý
10. assert oneself (v): khẳng định, quả quyết
11. self-preservation (n): sự thúc bách tự nhiên để sinh tồn
12. desperation (n): sự tuyệt vọng
13. fiercely (adv): dữ dội, mãnh liệt
14. overpower (v): áp đảo, chế ngự, khuất phục
15. adversary (n): kẻ địch, kẻ thù, đối phương
16. devotion (n): sự tận tụy, sự thành tâm, sự hiến dâng
Do you think that literary education is preferable to scientific education today?A literary education has always been regarded as indispensable to the development of character and a broad outlook on life. Whether such an education is preferable to a scientific education is, however, a moot question.
Before the advent of the Scientific Age most scholars pursued a literary education which conferred many benefits on them. It not only gave them an insight into the affairs of the world but also equipped them with a vocabulary that enabled them to express their views and feelings with cogency and facility. Besides, it developed their mental ability and intellectual powers, and many of the achieved distinction in public life as forcible speakers and writers or even as lawyers and political thinkers. Having discovered the benefits of such an education, ambitious men in all countries proceeded to the universities or other institutions of learning to acquire the advantages of a literary education, and this tendency is discernible even today, though a scientific education is being considered more advantageous to the needs of the present day.
The inventions of the modern age have indeed revolutionised society. Numerous goods are being produced, with rapidity unknown before in various parts of the earth with the aid of science and scientists of all countries are continuing to exert their brains to extend the realms of science. Every invention has helped to increase the leisure and convenience of men everywhere, and the demand for goods is increasing everyday. As a consequence, more and more machines are being invented to increase the production of goods within the shortest time possible.
Every mechanical invention, however, has to be operated by skilled men. The larger the machine the more complicated its operation, and any mechanical faults in it can be detected only by men with a scientific education, who are but few in number compared with those with a literary education. It is this scarcity of men with a scientific education that has led to the assumption that a scientific education today is preferable to a literary education. The large factories require men to operate machinery, dealers in motor-vehicles require men for all types of work in the industry, and there are a diversity of other industries which are looking for men with a scientific education. The demand for men with a scientific education is, therefore, great, and this serves as an incentive to young men to acquire industrial and technical skills, for the possession of such skills will not only enable them to secure remunerative occupations but also enable them to manage their own factories or workshops in the future to increase their earnings.
All this, however, does not imply that the man with a literary education is losing his importance rapidly. In truth, he is an indispensable person even today in various departments of human activity. He provides the managerial skill in an industry, contributes his literary abilities to the promotion of literacy in the country, provides ministerial and judicial services in the state, and performs a host of other functions.
Thus, it is not possible to say with finality that a certain type of education is preferable to another. It is for the individual to make the best of the type of education that he has received.
1. indispensable (adj): rất cần, không thể thiếu
2. moot (adj): có thể bàn 1uận
3. equip (v): trang bị
4. cogency (n): sự vững chắc, sức thuyết phục
5. distinction (n) sự ưu tú, sự xuất chúng, sự lỗi lạc
6. forcible (adj): sinh động, có sức thuyết phục
7. discernible (adj): có thể nhận thức được, có thể thấy rõ
8. exert (v): đưa vào sử dụng, áp dụng
9. realm (n): lĩnh vực
10. complicated (adj): phức tạp, rắc rối
11. scarcity (n): sự khan hiếm, sự khó tìm
12. diversity (n): sự đa dạng
13. incentive (n): sự khuyến khích; sự khích lệ, động viên
14. remunerative (adj): được trả hậu, có lợi
15. imply (v): hàm ý, ngụ ý
16. ministerial (adj): thuộc bộ trưởng
17. judicial (adj): thuộc hoặc bởi một toà án